Nitrones as therapeutics.
ABSTRACT Nitrones have the general chemical formula X-CH=NO-Y. They were first used to trap free radicals in chemical systems and then subsequently in biochemical systems. More recently several nitrones, including alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), have been shown to have potent biological activity in many experimental animal models. Many diseases of aging, including stroke, cancer development, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease, are known to have enhanced levels of free radicals and oxidative stress. Some derivatives of PBN are significantly more potent than PBN and have undergone extensive commercial development for stroke. Recent research has shown that PBN-related nitrones also have anti-cancer activity in several experimental cancer models and have potential as therapeutics in some cancers. Also, in recent observations nitrones have been shown to act synergistically in combination with antioxidants in the prevention of acute acoustic-noise-induced hearing loss. The mechanistic basis of the potent biological activity of PBN-related nitrones is not known. Even though PBN-related nitrones do decrease oxidative stress and oxidative damage, their potent biological anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to alter cellular signaling processes cannot readily be explained by conventional notions of free radical trapping biochemistry. This review is focused on our studies and others in which the use of selected nitrones as novel therapeutics has been evaluated in experimental models in the context of free radical biochemical and cellular processes considered important in pathologic conditions and age-related diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The detection of DNA radicals by immuno-spin trapping (IST) is based on the trapping of radicals with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), forming stable nitrone adducts that are then detected using an anti-DMPO serum. DNA radicals are very reactive species, and because they are paramagnetic they have previously been detected only by electron spin resonance (ESR) with or without spin trapping, which is not available in most bioresearch laboratories. IST combines the simplicity, reliability, specificity and sensitivity of spin trapping with heterogeneous immunoassays for the detection of DNA radicals, and complements existing methods for the measurement of oxidatively generated DNA damage. Here we have used IST to demonstrate that DMPO traps Cu(II)-H(2)O(2)-induced DNA radicals in situ and in real time, forming DMPO-DNA nitrone adducts, but preventing both 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) formation and DNA fragmentation. We also applied IST to detect DNA radicals in rat hepatocytes exposed to Cu(II) and H(2)O(2) under nonlethal conditions.Nature Methods 03/2006; 3(2):123-7. · 19.28 Impact Factor
Article: ESR spin-trapping studies on the reaction of Fe2+ ions with H2O2-reactive species in oxygen toxicity in biology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using ESR spin-trapping techniques with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), we confirmed the 1:1 stoichiometry for the formation of hydroxyl radicals with Fe2+ in the Fenton reaction under experimental conditions wherein [H2O2] is 90 microM and [Fe2+] is very low, 1 microM or less. The stoichiometry decreased markedly as the Fe2+ concentration was increased. The efficiency of hydroxyl radical generation varied with the nature of the iron chelators used and increased in the order of phosphate alone approximately ADP less than EDTA less than diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DETAPAC). The second order rate constant for the Fenton reaction was measured to be 2.0 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 for phosphate alone, 8.2 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 for ADP, 1.4 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 for EDTA, and 4.1 x 10(2) M-1 s-1 for DETAPAC. Measuring the radicals formed as spins trapped in the presence of ethanol, we estimated the amount of total oxidizing intermediates formed in the Fenton reaction, which we concluded consists of hydroxyl radicals and an iron species. The oxidizing species of iron which might be assigned as ferryl, FeO2+, or Fe(IV) = O was generated effectively in the presence of ADP even at low Fe2+ concentrations. In general, as the Fe2+ concentration was increased, the ferryl species predominated over the hydroxyl radical except for the case of Fe(II)-DETAPAC, which generated only hydroxyl radicals as the oxidizing species. Three possible pathways are proposed for the Fenton reaction, the dominant ones depending very much on the nature of the iron chelator being used.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1990; 265(23):13589-94. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: A novel dual inhibitor of calpains and lipid peroxidation (BN82270) rescues the cochlea from sound trauma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Free radical and calcium buffering mechanisms are implicated in cochlear cell damage that has been induced by sound trauma. Thus in this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a novel dual inhibitor of calpains and of lipid peroxidation (BN 82270) on the permanent hearing and hair cell loss induced by sound trauma. Perfusion of BN 82270 into the scala tympani of the guinea pig cochlea prevented the formation of calpain-cleaved fodrin, translocation of cytochrome c, DNA fragmentation and hair cell degeneration caused by sound trauma. This was confirmed by functional tests in vivo, showing a clear dose-dependent reduction of permanent hearing loss (ED50 = 4.07 microM) with almost complete protection at 100 microM. Furthermore, BN82270 still remained effective even when applied onto the round window membrane after sound trauma had occurred, within a therapeutic window of 24 h. This indicates that BN 82270 may be of potential therapeutic value in treating the cochlea after sound trauma.Neuropharmacology 06/2007; 52(6):1426-37. · 4.81 Impact Factor