Article

The mode of Hedgehog binding to Ihog homologs is not conserved across different phyla

Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 10/2008; 455(7215):979-83. DOI: 10.1038/nature07358
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hedgehog (Hh) proteins specify tissue pattern in metazoan embryos by forming gradients that emanate from discrete sites of expression and elicit concentration-dependent cellular differentiation or proliferation responses. Cellular responses to Hh and the movement of Hh through tissues are both precisely regulated, and abnormal Hh signalling has been implicated in human birth defects and cancer. Hh signalling is mediated by its amino-terminal domain (HhN), which is dually lipidated and secreted as part of a multivalent lipoprotein particle. Reception of the HhN signal is modulated by several cell-surface proteins on responding cells, including Patched (Ptc), Smoothened (Smo), Ihog (known as CDO or CDON in mammals) and the vertebrate-specific proteins Hip (also known as Hhip) and Gas1 (ref. 11). Drosophila Ihog and its vertebrate homologues CDO and BOC contain multiple immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III (FNIII) repeats, and the first FNIII repeat of Ihog binds Drosophila HhN in a heparin-dependent manner. Surprisingly, pull-down experiments suggest that a mammalian Sonic hedgehog N-terminal domain (ShhN) binds a non-orthologous FNIII repeat of CDO. Here we report biochemical, biophysical and X-ray structural studies of a complex between ShhN and the third FNIII repeat of CDO. We show that the ShhN-CDO interaction is completely unlike the HhN-Ihog interaction and requires calcium, which binds at a previously undetected site on ShhN. This site is conserved in nearly all Hh proteins and is a hotspot for mediating interactions between ShhN and CDO, Ptc, Hip and Gas1. Mutations in vertebrate Hh proteins causing holoprosencephaly and brachydactyly type A1 map to this calcium-binding site and disrupt interactions with these partners.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Xiaoyan Zheng, Dec 17, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
107 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis and cell arrest in different tumors, but it is also involved in the development of the nervous system and other tissues and organs. This dual ability is likely caused by its capacity to interact both by inhibiting the intracellular signaling cascade induced by glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and by facilitating the activity of the sonic hedgehog pathway. The presence of GAS1 mRNA has been described in adult mouse brain, and here we corroborated this observation. We then proceeded to determine the distribution of the protein in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We detected, by western blot analysis, expression of GAS1 in olfactory bulb, caudate-putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord. To more carefully map the expression of GAS1, we performed double-label immunohistochemistry and noticed expression of GAS1 in neurons in all brain areas examined. We also observed expression of GAS1 in astroglial cells, albeit the pattern of expression was more restricted than that seen in neurons. Briefly, in the present article, we report the widespread distribution and cellular localization of the GAS1 native protein in adult mammalian CNS.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/2013; DOI:10.1369/0022155413498088 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secreted Hedgehog (HH) ligands signal through the canonical receptor Patched (PTCH1). However, recent studies implicate three additional HH-binding, cell-surface proteins, GAS1, CDO, and BOC, as putative coreceptors for HH ligands. A central question is to what degree these coreceptors function similarly and what their collective requirement in HH signal transduction is. Here we provide evidence that GAS1, CDO, and BOC play overlapping and essential roles during HH-mediated ventral neural patterning of the mammalian neural tube. Specifically, we demonstrate two important roles for these molecules: an early role in cell fate specification of multiple neural progenitors and a later role in motor neuron progenitor maintenance. Most strikingly, genetic loss-of-function experiments indicate an obligatory requirement for GAS1, CDO, and BOC in HH pathway activity in multiple tissues.
    Developmental Cell 06/2011; 20(6):775-87. DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2011.04.018 · 10.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the transporter-like protein Patched (Ptc) is genetically implicated in reception of the extracellular Hedgehog (Hh) protein signal, a clear definition of the Hh receptor is complicated by the existence of additional Hh-binding proteins and, in Drosophila, by the lack of physical evidence for direct binding of Hh to Ptc. Here we show that activity of Ihog (Interference hedgehog), or of its close relative Boi (Brother of Ihog), is absolutely required for Hh biological response and for sequestration of the Hh protein to limit long-range signaling. We demonstrate that Ihog interacts directly with Ptc, is required for presentation of Ptc on the cell surface, and that Ihog and Ptc are both required for high-affinity Hh binding. On the basis of their joint roles in ligand binding, signal transduction, and receptor trafficking, we conclude that Ihog and Ptc together constitute the Drosophila Hh receptor.
    Genes & development 01/2010; 24(1):57-71. DOI:10.1101/gad.1870310 · 12.64 Impact Factor