TTK/Mps1 controls nuclear targeting of c-Abl by 14-3-3-coupled phosphorylation in response to oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT Upon exposure to genotoxic stress, the c-Abl tyrosine kinase is released from cytoplasmic 14-3-3 proteins and then is targeted to the nucleus. Phosphorylation of Thr735 in c-Abl is critical for binding to 14-3-3; however, kinases responsible for this phosphorylation are unknown. Here, we identify CLK1, CLK4, MST1, MST2 and TTK (also known as Mps1) as novel Thr735 kinases in vitro by expression cloning strategy using phosphospecific antibody. We also demonstrate that ectopic expression of these kinases is capable for phosphorylation of Thr735 in cells. Importantly, upon exposure to oxidative stress, phosphorylation of Thr735 is transiently upregulated, and the status of this phosphorylation remains unchanged in cells silenced for CLK1, CLK4, MST1 or MST2. By contrast, knockdown of TTK attenuates phosphorylation of Thr735, suggesting that TTK is a physiological kinase that phosphorylates Thr735. In concert with these results, we show that, in cells silenced for TTK, c-Abl is accumulated in the nucleus even in unstressed condition and no further targeting into the nucleus occurs after oxidative stress. Moreover, nuclear entrapment of c-Abl by knocking down TTK enhances oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. These findings provide evidence that TTK phosphorylates c-Abl at Thr735 and that this phosphorylation is of importance to the cytoplasmic sequestration of c-Abl.
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ABSTRACT: We have identified a mutant allele of the DAM1 gene in a screen for mutations that are lethal in combination with the mps1-1 mutation. MPS1 encodes an essential protein kinase that is required for duplication of the spindle pole body and for the spindle assembly checkpoint. Mutations in six different genes were found to be lethal in combination with mps1-1, of which only DAM1 was novel. The remaining genes encode a checkpoint protein, Bub1p, and four chaperone proteins, Sti1p, Hsc82p, Cdc37p, and Ydj1p. DAM1 is an essential gene that encodes a protein recently described as a member of a microtubule binding complex. We report here that cells harboring the dam1-1 mutation fail to maintain spindle integrity during anaphase at the restrictive temperature. Consistent with this phenotype, DAM1 displays genetic interactions with STU1, CIN8, and KAR3, genes encoding proteins involved in spindle function. We have observed that a Dam1p-Myc fusion protein expressed at endogenous levels and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy, appears to be evenly distributed along short mitotic spindles but is found at the spindle poles at later times in mitosis.Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/1999; 10(7):2377-91. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The c-Abl tyrosine kinase is inhibited by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Disruption of these mechanisms in the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein leads to several forms of human leukemia. We found that like Src kinases, c-Abl 1b is activated by phosphotyrosine ligands. Ligand-activated c-Abl is particularly sensitive to the anti-cancer drug STI-571/Gleevec/imatinib (STI-571). The SH2 domain-phosphorylated tail interaction in Src kinases is functionally replaced in c-Abl by an intramolecular engagement of the N-terminal myristoyl modification with the kinase domain. Functional studies coupled with structural analysis define a myristoyl/phosphotyrosine switch in c-Abl that regulates docking and accessibility of the SH2 domain. This mechanism offers an explanation for the observed cellular activation of c-Abl by tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, the intracellular mobility of c-Abl, and it provides new insights into the mechanism of action of STI-571.Cell 04/2003; 112(6):845-57. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: c-Abl is normally regulated by an autoinhibitory mechanism, the disruption of which leads to chronic myelogenous leukemia. The details of this mechanism have been elusive because c-Abl lacks a phosphotyrosine residue that triggers the assembly of the autoinhibited form of the closely related Src kinases by internally engaging the SH2 domain. Crystal structures of c-Abl show that the N-terminal myristoyl modification of c-Abl 1b binds to the kinase domain and induces conformational changes that allow the SH2 and SH3 domains to dock onto it. Autoinhibited c-Abl forms an assembly that is strikingly similar to that of inactive Src kinases but with specific differences that explain the differential ability of the drug STI-571/Gleevec/imatinib (STI-571) to inhibit the catalytic activity of Abl, but not that of c-Src.Cell 04/2003; 112(6):859-71. · 31.96 Impact Factor