Clark RA, Huang SJ, Murphy GF, Mollet IG, Hijnen D, Muthukuru M et al.Human squamous cell carcinomas evade the immune response by down-regulation of vascular E-selectin and recruitment of regulatory T cells. J Exp Med 205:2221-2234

Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 10/2008; 205(10):2221-34. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20071190
Source: PubMed


Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin are sun-induced skin cancers that are particularly numerous in patients on T cell immunosuppression. We found that blood vessels in SCCs did not express E-selectin, and tumors contained few cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) T cells, the cell type thought to provide cutaneous immunosurveillance. Tumors treated with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 agonist imiquimod before excision showed induction of E-selectin on tumor vessels, recruitment of CLA(+) CD8(+) T cells, and histological evidence of tumor regression. SCCs treated in vitro with imiquimod also expressed vascular E-selectin. Approximately 50% of the T cells infiltrating untreated SCCs were FOXP3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells. Imiquimod-treated tumors contained a decreased percentage of T reg cells, and these cells produced less FOXP3, interleukin (IL)-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Treatment of T reg cells in vitro with imiquimod inhibited their suppressive activity and reduced FOXP3, CD39, CD73, IL-10, and TGF-beta by indirect mechanisms. In vivo and in vitro treatment with imiquimod also induced IL-6 production by effector T cells. In summary, we find that SCCs evade the immune response at least in part by down-regulating vascular E-selectin and recruiting T reg cells. TLR7 agonists neutralized both of these strategies, supporting their use in SCCs and other tumors with similar immune defects.

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    • "Tregs are increased during tumorigenesis6,7. Tumor cells can also efficiently recruit Tregs to evade the host immune response2. Due to the importance of Tregs in tumor immune evasion, the depletion of Tregs is a potential therapy for cancer8,9. Although multiple factors, such as IL-210 and TGF-β11,12, are responsible for the expansion of Tregs, the precise mechanism by which tumor cells induce Tregs remains poorly understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: An increased population of CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed an increased secretion of miR-214 in various types of human cancers and mouse tumor models. Tumor-secreted miR-214 was sufficiently delivered into recipient T cells by microvesicles (MVs). In targeted mouse peripheral CD4(+) T cells, tumor-derived miR-214 efficiently downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and promoted Treg expansion. The miR-214-induced Tregs secreted higher levels of IL-10 and promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, in vivo studies indicated that Treg expansion mediated by cancer cell-secreted miR-214 resulted in enhanced immune suppression and tumor implantation/growth in mice. The MV delivery of anti-miR-214 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) into mice implanted with tumors blocked Treg expansion and tumor growth. Our study reveals a novel mechanism through which cancer cell actively manipulates immune response via promoting Treg expansion.Cell Research advance online publication 16 September 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.121.
    Cell Research 09/2014; 24(10). DOI:10.1038/cr.2014.121 · 12.41 Impact Factor
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    • "Following the concept of a united airways disease, we would have expected increased expression levels of E-selectin in nasal polyps, as it has been reported for bronchial biopsies and serum of asthmatic patients [20–23]. Our results show lower expression of E-selectin in the endothelium of nasal polyps, which has also been shown for blood vessels of human squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, in which the downregulation of vascular E-selectin was suggested to help malignant cells to evade the immune response [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) in Caucasians is a chronic Th2 inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa and the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation is poorly understood. We studied mRNA and protein expression profiles of adhesion molecules in nasal polyp and associated inferior turbinate tissues using molecular, biochemical, and immunohistological methods. Analysis showed a strongly decreased E-selectin expression in nasal polyps with a significant difference between eosinophil and neutrophil counts in nasal polyps and balanced counts in inferior turbinates. E-selectin expression is known to be downregulated in a Th2 milieu and has an essential role in immunosurveillance by locally activating neutrophil arrest and migratory function. A downregulation of E-selectin may come along with an immune imbalance in Caucasian nasal polyps due to a significant inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, we suggest that an upregulation of E-selectin and the associated influx of neutrophils may play a significant role in the resolution of inflammation as well as for the pathophysiology of nasal polyps of Caucasian chronic rhinosinusitis patients.
    Clinical and Developmental Immunology 06/2014; 2014:959854. DOI:10.1155/2014/959854 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "It is a toll-like receptor-7 agonist that modifies the immune response in the skin and stimulates apoptosis, thereby disrupting tumor proliferation. Additionally, it induces E-selectin on tumor vessels and consequent infiltration by cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen-positive skin-homing cluster of differentiation (CD8+) cytotoxic T cells, and results in histological evidence of tumor regression [67] and a reduction in tumor cell numbers [68]. It triggers a range of proinflammatory cytokines including interferon alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) [69]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common skin lesions heralding an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and other skin malignancies, arising principally due to excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. They are predominantly found in fair-skinned individuals, and increasingly, are a problem of the immunosuppressed. AKs may regress spontaneously, remain stable or transform to invasive SCC. The risk of SCC increases for those with more than 5 AKs, and the majority of SCCs arise from AKs. The main mechanisms of AK formation are inflammation, oxidative stress, immunosuppression, impaired apoptosis, mutagenesis, dysregulation of cell growth and proliferation, and tissue remodeling. Human papilloma virus has also been implicated in the formation of some AKs. Understanding these mechanisms guides the rationale behind the current available treatments for AKs. One of the main principles underpinning the management of AKs is that of field cancerization. Wide areas of skin are exposed to increasing amounts of UV light and other environmental insults as we age. This is especially true for the head, neck and forearms. These insults do not target only the skin where individual lesions develop, but also large areas where crops of AKs may appear. The skin between lesions is exposed to the same insults and is likely to contain as-yet undetectable preclinical lesions or areas of dysplastic cells. The whole affected area is known as the ‘field’. Management is therefore divided into lesion-directed and field-directed therapies. Current therapies include lesion-directed cryotherapy and/or excision, and topical field-directed creams: 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, photodynamic therapy and ingenol mebutate. Combining lesion- and field-directed therapies has yielded good results and several novel therapies are under investigation. Treatment is variable and tailored to the individual making a gold standard management algorithm difficult to design. This literature review article aims to describe the rationale behind the best available therapies for AKs in light of current understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology. A PubMed and MEDLINE search of literature was performed between January 1, 2000 and September 18, 2013. Where appropriate, articles published prior to this have been referenced. This is not a systematic review or meta-analysis, but aims to highlight the most up to date understanding of AK disease and its management. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13555-014-0049-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    03/2014; 4(1). DOI:10.1007/s13555-014-0049-y
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