Racial/Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Behavioral Determinants of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity in the United States: Analyzing Independent and Joint Associations

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20857, USA.
Annals of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2). 10/2008; 18(9):682-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.05.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examines independent and joint associations between several socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral characteristics and obesity prevalence among 46,707 children aged 10-17 years in the United States.
The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to calculate obesity prevalence. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity and adjusted prevalence.
Ethnic minority status, non-metropolitan residence, lower socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital, higher television viewing, and higher physical inactivity levels were all independently associated with higher obesity prevalence. Adjusted obesity prevalence varied by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and SES. Compared with affluent white children, the odds of obesity were 2.7, 1.9 and 3.2 times higher for the poor Hispanic, white, and black children, respectively. Hispanic, white, and black children watching television 3 hours or more per day had 1.8, 1.9, and 2.5 times higher odds of obesity than white children who watched television less than 1 hour/day, respectively. Poor children with a sedentary lifestyle had 3.7 times higher odds of obesity than their active, affluent counterparts (adjusted prevalence, 19.8% vs. 6.7%).
Race/ethnicity, SES, and behavioral factors are independently related to childhood and adolescent obesity. Joint effects by gender, race/ethnicity, and SES indicate the potential for considerable reduction in the existing disparities in childhood obesity in the United States.

Download full-text


Available from: Michael D Kogan, Sep 26, 2015
297 Reads
  • Source
    • "Most summer intervention studies targeted children who were socio-economically able to attend camps. Children from unprivileged community may have less access to out-of school activities such as sports and summer camps [4] [8] [10] [13]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that adolescents gain more weight during the summer break than they do during the school year, and that participation in the summer school program is beneficial in maintaining their healthy lifestyle. It is known that obesity and physical fitness in adolescents can be affected by their socio-economic and psychological status, especially during a long school break. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness in underprivileged adolescents during the summer break. Body composition and physical fitness in 138 underprivileged adolescents were measured at the beginning and end of the summer break. A survey on socio-economic and psychological status was conducted at the beginning of the summer break. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to establish a relation between psychological outcomes and changes in body composition and physical fitness during the summer break. Significant increases in body weight (p = .003) and % body fat (p = .014) as well as a decrease in VO2max (p = .018) were found in summer school non-attendants during the summer whereas no significant changes were found in summer school attendants. Summer school non-attendants with lower psychosocial outcomes had a greater decline in physical fitness and weight gain; however, summer school attendants were not affected by psychosocial outcomes. The summer school program effectively prevented summer weight gain among underprivileged adolescents due to the structured environment, restricted food access, and scheduled time for exercise in addition to minimizing the effects of their psychosocial outcomes. Results indicated that summer school non-attendants may require comprehensive intervention for psychosocial outcomes and nutritional education to maintain body weight and physical fitness levels during the summer break.
    06/2015; 19(2):81-90. DOI:10.5717/jenb.2015.15052005
  • Source
    • "First, are the observations that different methods of assessing SES result in different relationships between obesity and academic performance. For example, studies investigating academic performance and physical fitness have identified SES samples as being from high risk neighborhoods, specific ethnic groups within heterogeneous communities (Singh et al., 2008), education (Fontain et al., 2011), income (Echeverrıá et al., 2014), and composite indices of SES (Baxter et al., 2011). The method of assessing SES and the criteria for selecting the sample are likely to vary as result of the definition of SES used. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children who are unhealthy are at higher risk for school problems than students who are free from medical problems. Students with poor health have a higher probability of school failure, grade retention, and dropout. The relationship between student health and academic success is complex. Common manageable factors of student health are nutrition, maintaining healthy weight, and physical fitness. Through a comprehensive literature review the relationships among school achievement and nutrition, maintaining healthy weight, and physical fitness are examined. Furthermore, the efficacy of educational programs to improve nutrition, maintain healthy weight, and increase physical fitness is evaluated. The complexity of the relationship among variables is presented and areas for future research and practice for school psychologists are described.
    School Psychology International 02/2015; 36(2):115–134. DOI:10.1177/0143034314565425 · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Most studies concerning height, weight and BMI focus on social and economic indicators. Race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES), and behavioral factors are independently related to childhood and adolescent obesity (Singh et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The study was aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with non-inbred children.MethodsA cohort study was conducted during April 2013 through July 2013 in Jammu (North India) and a total of 1,270 children (5–15 years of age) were selected in a random way both from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations. The height and weight was measured using standard methods and the BMI categories were employed as adapted by World Health Organization (WHO). Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F).ResultsChildren of inbred families showed decline in mean value for height, weight, and BMI (P < 0.0001). The mean difference (95% confidence interval) in height −7.318 (5.827–8.809), weight −6.590 (5.100–8.081) and BMI −2.133 (0.6419–3.624) for inbred as compared with non-inbred children were found to be significant (P < 0.001). We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for height, weight and BMI with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were statistically significant (P < 0.05, using post hoc tests). The frequency of underweight children was found to be higher among individuals in the inbred category (<18.5 kg/m2 = 47.31%) as compared with the non-inbred category (<18.5 kg/m2 = 13.41%) and subsequent depression was found among the inbred children due to an increase of inbreeding coefficient.Conclusions Our results provide the evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and BMI being important in context of child health. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 08/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22599 · 1.70 Impact Factor
Show more