Racial/Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Behavioral Determinants of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity in the United States: Analyzing Independent and Joint Associations

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20857, USA.
Annals of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.15). 10/2008; 18(9):682-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.05.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examines independent and joint associations between several socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral characteristics and obesity prevalence among 46,707 children aged 10-17 years in the United States.
The 2003 National Survey of Children's Health was used to calculate obesity prevalence. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity and adjusted prevalence.
Ethnic minority status, non-metropolitan residence, lower socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital, higher television viewing, and higher physical inactivity levels were all independently associated with higher obesity prevalence. Adjusted obesity prevalence varied by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and SES. Compared with affluent white children, the odds of obesity were 2.7, 1.9 and 3.2 times higher for the poor Hispanic, white, and black children, respectively. Hispanic, white, and black children watching television 3 hours or more per day had 1.8, 1.9, and 2.5 times higher odds of obesity than white children who watched television less than 1 hour/day, respectively. Poor children with a sedentary lifestyle had 3.7 times higher odds of obesity than their active, affluent counterparts (adjusted prevalence, 19.8% vs. 6.7%).
Race/ethnicity, SES, and behavioral factors are independently related to childhood and adolescent obesity. Joint effects by gender, race/ethnicity, and SES indicate the potential for considerable reduction in the existing disparities in childhood obesity in the United States.

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    • "Most summer intervention studies targeted children who were socio-economically able to attend camps. Children from unprivileged community may have less access to out-of school activities such as sports and summer camps [4] [8] [10] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that adolescents gain more weight during the summer break than they do during the school year, and that participation in the summer school program is beneficial in maintaining their healthy lifestyle. It is known that obesity and physical fitness in adolescents can be affected by their socio-economic and psychological status, especially during a long school break. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of summer school participation and psychosocial outcomes on changes in body composition and physical fitness in underprivileged adolescents during the summer break. Body composition and physical fitness in 138 underprivileged adolescents were measured at the beginning and end of the summer break. A survey on socio-economic and psychological status was conducted at the beginning of the summer break. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to establish a relation between psychological outcomes and changes in body composition and physical fitness during the summer break. Significant increases in body weight (p = .003) and % body fat (p = .014) as well as a decrease in VO2max (p = .018) were found in summer school non-attendants during the summer whereas no significant changes were found in summer school attendants. Summer school non-attendants with lower psychosocial outcomes had a greater decline in physical fitness and weight gain; however, summer school attendants were not affected by psychosocial outcomes. The summer school program effectively prevented summer weight gain among underprivileged adolescents due to the structured environment, restricted food access, and scheduled time for exercise in addition to minimizing the effects of their psychosocial outcomes. Results indicated that summer school non-attendants may require comprehensive intervention for psychosocial outcomes and nutritional education to maintain body weight and physical fitness levels during the summer break.
    06/2015; 19(2):81-90. DOI:10.5717/jenb.2015.15052005
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    • "Most studies concerning height, weight and BMI focus on social and economic indicators. Race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES), and behavioral factors are independently related to childhood and adolescent obesity (Singh et al., 2008). "
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    • "In addition, to date, no research was found that explored the influences of familial socialization and ethnic identity on physical activity or eating behaviors among African American adolescents . Closing this gap in our knowledge base will inform culturally sensitive, targeted interventions to help decrease this population's obesity by promoting the health eating behaviors and physical activity, and, ultimately, decreasing the empirically documented obesity disparities (Singh et al., 2008; Skinner et al., 2009). In addition, most studies have focused on urban, lowincome African Americans, limiting the generalizability of their findings to other segments of this population. "
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