Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.).
ABSTRACT This volume explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, author John W. Creswell compares theoretical frameworks, methodologies in employing standards of quality, strategies for writing introductions to studies, the collection and analysis of data, narrative writing, and result verification. New to the Second Edition: (a) Brings the philosophical and theoretical orientations to the beginning of the book: This change helps ground students in the foundational thinking behind these methods much earlier. (b) Gives broader coverage of narrative research: Creswell expands one of the original five approaches from "Biography" to "Narrative," thus exploring a wider range of narrative opportunities--biography still being one of them. (c) Offers a much deeper discussion of interpretive approaches: This edition places much more emphasis on interpretive and postmodern perspectives such as feminism, ethnicity, and critical theory. (d) Provides more specific steps for doing research within each approach: Creswell discusses the actual procedure for each approach and includes the types of qualitative research within each of the five approaches. (e) Illustrates phenomenology and ethnography: The Second Edition contains two new, recent sample journal articles: one covering a phenomenological study, the other covering ethnographic study. (f) Includes additional examples: The author provides examples from the field of human services to enhance the already robust examples from education, sociology, and psychology. Intended Audience: This is a useful text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in introductory qualitative research methods across the social, behavioral, and health sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
- SourceAvailable from: link.springer.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best practices for identifying, obtaining and using unpublished data. METHODS: This is a qualitative study analyzing in-depth interviews with authors of systematic reviews who have published Cochrane reviews or published systematic reviews outside of The Cochrane Library. We included participants who 1) were the first or senior author of a published systematic review of a drug intervention, 2) had expertise in conducting systematic reviews, searching for data, and assessing methodological biases, and 3) were able to participate in an interview in English. We used non-random sampling techniques to identify potential participants. Eighteen Cochrane authors were contacted and 16 agreed to be interviewed (89% response rate). Twenty-four non-Cochrane authors were contacted and 16 were interviewed (67% response rate). RESULTS: Respondents had different understandings of what was meant by unpublished data, including specific outcomes and methodological details. Contacting study authors was the most common method used to obtain unpublished data and the value of regulatory agencies as a data source was underappreciated. Using the data obtained was time consuming and labor intensive. Respondents described the collaboration with other colleagues and/or students required to organize, manage and use the data in their reviews, generally developing and using templates, spreadsheets and computer programs for data extraction and analysis. Respondents had a shared belief that data should be accessible but some had concerns about sharing their own data. Respondents believed that obtaining unpublished data for reviews has important public health implications. There was widespread support for government intervention to ensure open access to trial data. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents uniformly agreed that the benefit of identifying unpublished data was worth the effort and was necessary to identify the true harms and benefits of drugs. Recent actions by government, such as increased availability of trial data from the European Medicines Agency, may make it easier to acquire critical drug trial data.Systematic reviews. 05/2013; 2(1):31.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemistry students encounter a variety of terms, definitions, and classification schemes that many instructors expect students to memorize and be able to use. This research investigated students' descriptions of ionic and covalent bonding beyond definitions in order to explore students' knowledge about chemical bonding. Using Johnstone's Multiple Levels of Representation framework, an interactive interview protocol was designed to explore secondary and first year university chemistry students' understandings of bonding. This paper reports findings from the first phase of the interview when students were asked to create models to depict and explain covalent and ionic bonding using art supplies. Analysis of the student generated models and their accompanying explanations revealed multiple misconceptions about covalent and ionic bonding even though students could recite definitions.Chemistry Education Research and Practice 04/2013; 14:214-222. · 1.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into nurses' understandings of what constitutes suitable footwear for older people in care homes. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory descriptive qualitative survey was carried out of 20 registered nurses employed in six Scottish care homes for older people. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that included five open-ended questions. Content analysis was used to theme footwear perceptions. Findings – Participants had several views about what encompasses safe footwear; some were erroneous. The link between inappropriate footwear and falls was recognised by 80 per cent of respondents, but some were unclear about the features that effect or inhibit safety. No UK or international standardised guidelines were identified that advise nurses about appropriate footwear for older people. Practical implications – It is unknown whether respondents represent the nurse population because findings are restricted by a small sample size. Nonetheless, the group showed variable understanding of what constitutes safe footwear for older people and links with fall prevention. Improved nurse-education about what comprises safe footwear and the links with falls prevention in older people is required. Structured guidelines to direct nurse educators about what to teach student nurses about appropriate footwear for older people may work towards reducing falls. Originality/value – No guidelines to direct nurses about appropriate footwear for older people in care homes have been written. Key points have been developed.International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 09/2013; 26(7):653.