Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches
ABSTRACT This volume explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, author John W. Creswell compares theoretical frameworks, methodologies in employing standards of quality, strategies for writing introductions to studies, the collection and analysis of data, narrative writing, and result verification. New to the Second Edition: (a) Brings the philosophical and theoretical orientations to the beginning of the book: This change helps ground students in the foundational thinking behind these methods much earlier. (b) Gives broader coverage of narrative research: Creswell expands one of the original five approaches from "Biography" to "Narrative," thus exploring a wider range of narrative opportunities--biography still being one of them. (c) Offers a much deeper discussion of interpretive approaches: This edition places much more emphasis on interpretive and postmodern perspectives such as feminism, ethnicity, and critical theory. (d) Provides more specific steps for doing research within each approach: Creswell discusses the actual procedure for each approach and includes the types of qualitative research within each of the five approaches. (e) Illustrates phenomenology and ethnography: The Second Edition contains two new, recent sample journal articles: one covering a phenomenological study, the other covering ethnographic study. (f) Includes additional examples: The author provides examples from the field of human services to enhance the already robust examples from education, sociology, and psychology. Intended Audience: This is a useful text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in introductory qualitative research methods across the social, behavioral, and health sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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- "At the end of our data collection period , we had 70 pages of single - spaced journal entries and written dialogue . Secondary data sources included emails , transcripts of audio - recorded conversations and discussions , and the analytic memos ( Charmaz , 2006 ; Creswell , 2007 , p . 67 ) that we each kept throughout the study . "
ABSTRACT: Drawing from the theoretical foundations of reflective teaching, culturally responsive education, social constructivism, and self-study, this collaborative self-study investigates the role of an interactive online journal in an international research collective. Each from a different country, the authors came together through a common interest in the “philosophy for children Hawai’i” approach to education and designed an online platform for journaling together. The overall objectives of the study are to examine how interactive online journaling influences international collaboration, individual research interests and goals, and personal and professional development. To analyze their journal the authors use an applied self-study research methodology that is self-initiated, improvement-aimed, and communicative. The findings reveal how journaling can create an international commons, deepen inquiry in the research process, and foster a culturally responsive approach to international collaboration. The discussion explores the impact of the authors’ relationships and roles on their joint production of knowledge and elaborates the usefulness of collaborative technologies in reducing face-to-face tensions often experienced in cross-cultural collaboration. The authors explain how community, philosophical inquiry, and reflection in the context of online journaling proved to be powerful tools for culturally responsive researchers who wish to construct their own understandings of what it means to be a part of an international research collective.Studying Teacher Education 09/2015; 11(1):1 - 17. DOI:10.1080/17425964.2015.1013025
- "The research strategy thus followed Grounded Theory, a methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967). Grounded Theory is preferred when the aim is to generate a general explanation of a process or action (Creswell, 2007). It is considered as especially useful when illustrating a process over a longer period, as well as studying complex factors that influence health and illness (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). "
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- "The PAPA project is an intervention study that aimed to develop, deliver and evaluate a theoretically-grounded and evidence-based coach education program that guides grassroots football coaches in promoting quality motivation and make youth football more supportive, engaging, and enjoyable. Qualitative methods are concerned with experiences, understanding, values and meanings that persons ascribe a phenomenon (Creswell 2012). As the aim of this study was to address the coaches own reflections and perceptions of their coaching practices after attending the program a qualitative method with in-depth interviews were selected. "
ABSTRACT: Purpose. The health promoting benefits of sport participation are under-utilized and should be further developed, particularly at the grassroots level. The aim of this paper is to examine how grassroots coaches in youth football perceive their coaching practices after participating in a community-based coach education program aimed at optimizing their experiences in youth sport (the Empowering Coaching™ training program), and to compare French and Norwegian coaches to capture whether the principles of the Empowering Coaching™ training program can be applied successfully in the two countries. Design/methodology/approach. The Empowering Coaching™ training program was delivered at the beginning of the 2011 football season. At the end of the season, the grassroots coaches’ reflections on their coaching practices were examined through a qualitative approach with in depth interviews of 18 coaches in France and Norway, applying a hybrid analyses and comparing country-wise. Findings. All coaches expressed to embrace the philosophy of the program, and to apply several of the strategies they had learnt during the workshop. The coaches perceived that the program supported their efforts to develop and implement strategies to stimulate intrinsic motivation, enjoyment and long term participation among the players. These results are encouraging for sport as a health promoting setting and for the development of personal skills in grassroots coaches. There were some differences between coaches from France and Norway (e.g. rules and involvement), but the similarities were more evident, supporting the universality of applying SDT in the youth sport setting. Research limitations/implications. Results needs to be interpreted with caution as we haven’t interviewed the coaches before attending the course, but rather asked them about their coaching in general before and after attending, and hence, there can be a recall bias. Finally, despite not knowing effects of intervention delivery, workshop dynamic and expert coach input could have had a specific effect on coaches’ implementation of the program. Practical implications. The consistency in the way that coaches in both countries perceived the outcomes of the Empowering Coaching™ training program suggests that the program is applicable in these different cultural contexts. Originality/value. This study explores qualitatively the impact of an intervention based on Self Determination Theory and Achievement Goal Theory, focusing on football coaches´ reflections on their coaching practices.Health Education 08/2015; 115(6).