A structural analysis of the transient interaction between the cytochrome bc1 complex and its substrate cytochrome c.
ABSTRACT In cellular respiration, cytochrome c transfers electrons from the cytochrome bc1 complex to cytochrome c oxidase by transiently binding to the membrane proteins. The first X-ray structure of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex with bound cytochrome c revealed the general architecture of the electron-transfer complex. The interface of the complex is small. The haem moieties are centrally located in a mainly non-polar contact site, which includes a cation-pi interaction and is surrounded by complementary charged residues. Only one cytochrome c1-docking site of the dimeric complex is occupied with cytochrome c. The recent 1.9 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution structure of the complex showed that the interface is highly hydrated. With cytochrome c bound, a higher number of interfacial water molecules are present on the cytochrome c1 interface, whereas its protein surface is not affected. Remarkably, the dimer structure is slightly asymmetric. Univalent cytochrome c binding coincides with conformational changes of the Rieske head domain and subunit QCR6p. Pronounced hydration and a mobility mismatch at the interface with disordered charged residues on the cytochrome c side are favourable for transient binding. Comparison with a new structure of the complex with bound isoform-2 cytochrome c led to the definition of a core interface, which refers to four common interaction pairs including the cation-pi interaction. They encircle the haem groups and are surrounded by variable interactions. The core interface may be a feature to gain specificity for formation of the reactive complex. The consistency in the binding interaction despite differences in primary sequence, redox state and crystal contacts, together with crystallization at physiological ionic strength, clearly suggest that the structures show the native bound state of the electron-transfer complex.
- Advances in Psychology. 01/2001; 130:331-352.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome c delicately tilts the balance between cell life (respiration) and cell death (apoptosis). Whereas cell life is governed by transient electron transfer interactions of cytochrome c inside the mitochondria, the cytoplasmic adducts of cytochrome c that lead to cell death are amazingly stable. Interestingly, the contacts of cytochrome c with its counterparts shift from the area surrounding the heme crevice for the redox complexes to the opposite molecule side when the electron flow is not necessary. The cytochrome c signalosome shows a higher level of regulation by post-translational modifications-nitration and phosphorylation-of the hemeprotein. Understanding protein interfaces, as well as protein modifications, would puzzle the mitochondrial cytochrome c-controlled pathways out and enable the design of novel drugs to silence the action of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic partners of cytochrome c.Biophysics of Structure and Mechanism 11/2011; 40(12):1301-15. · 2.44 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In plants, channeling of cytochrome c molecules between complexes III and IV has been purported to shuttle electrons within the supercomplexes instead of carrying electrons by random diffusion across the intermembrane bulk phase. However, the mode plant cytochrome c behaves inside a supercomplex such as the respirasome, formed by complexes I, III and IV, remains obscure from a structural point of view. Here, we report ab-initio Brownian Dynamics calculations and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-driven docking computations showing two binding sites for plant cytochrome c at the head soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1, namely a non-productive (or distal) site with a long heme-to-heme distance and a functional (or proximal) site with the two heme groups close enough as to allow electron transfer. As inferred from Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments, the two binding sites exhibit different equilibrium dissociation constants, for both reduced and oxidized species, that are all within the micromolar range, so revealing the transient nature of such a respiratory complex. Although the docking of cytochrome c at the distal site occurs at the interface between cytochrome c1 and the Rieske subunit, it is fully compatible with the complex III structure. In our model, the extra distal site in complex III could indeed facilitate the functional cytochrome c channeling towards complex IV by building a "floating boat bridge" of cytochrome c molecules (between complexes III and IV) in plant respirasome.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 08/2014; 1837(10):1717-29. · 4.62 Impact Factor