Article

Prenatal prediction of survival in isolated diaphragmatic hernia using observed to expected total fetal lung volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging based on either gestational age or fetal body volume

Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 3.56). 10/2008; 32(5):633-9. DOI: 10.1002/uog.6139
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To compare the predictive value of the prenatal observed to expected (o/e) lung volume as measured by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on an algorithm using either the gestational age or fetal body volume (FBV), for neonatal survival of fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
We included 53 fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated CDH, 26 without and 27 with prenatal tracheal occlusion, who were assessed by fetal MRI, liveborn after 32 weeks, and in whom follow-up until discharge from the neonatal care unit was available. Measurements of lung volumes were expressed as a percentage of the appropriate mean (o/e total fetal lung volume (TFLV) x 100) either for gestational age or for FBV. Measurements of FBV were expressed as a percentage of the appropriate mean (o/e FBV x 100) for gestation. Fetuses with prenatal intervention were all assessed > or = 24 h after balloon removal. Regression analysis was used to examine the effect on postnatal survival of either o/e TFLV based on gestational age or based on FBV, gestation at delivery, side of CDH, intrathoracic position of the liver and prenatal intervention. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for the prediction of survival by o/e TFLV based on gestational age and o/e TFLV based on FBV, for all fetuses, as well as for those with o/e FBV between 90 and 110% and those with values beyond that range. A power calculation for the number of fetuses needed to show a difference between the ROC curves was performed.
Regression analysis demonstrated that o/e TFLV based on gestational age and on FBV were the only independent predictors of postnatal survival. The area under the ROC curve for prediction of postnatal survival from the o/e TFLV based on gestational age was 0.811, and for that based on FBV it was 0.868 (P < 0.001 for both). For fetuses with o/e FBV between 90 and 110%, and those with values < 90% and > 110%, the area for measurements based on gestational age was 0.895 and 0.733, respectively; when based on FBV it was 0.906 and 0.833 (P < 0.01 for all). A minimum of 273 patients would be needed to provide a probability of 90% of detecting a difference between the areas under both ROC curves.
In fetuses with isolated CDH, lung volume as measured by fetal MRI was significantly correlated with survival. Prediction tended to be better by o/e TFLV based on FBV rather than gestational age. The difference in the prediction of survival between o/e TFLV based on FBV or gestational age was dependent on fetal biometry.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
185 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH), omphaloceles, and congenital lung malformations (CLM) may have pulmonary hypoplasia and experience respiratory insufficiency. We hypothesize that given equivalent lung volumes, the degree of respiratory insufficiency will be comparable regardless of the etiology. Records of all fetuses with CDH, omphalocele, and CLM between January 2000 and June 2013 were reviewed. MRI-based observed-to-expected total fetal lung volumes (O/E-TFLV) were calculated. An analysis of outcomes in patients with O/E-TFLV between 40% and 60%, the most inclusive range, was performed. 285 patients were evaluated (161, CDH; 24, omphalocele; 100, CLM). Fetuses with CDH had the smallest mean O/E-TFLV. CDH patients were intubated for longer and had a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension. Fifty-six patients with the three diagnoses had an O/E-TFLV of 40%-60%. The need for ECMO, supplemental oxygen at 30days of life, and 6-month mortality were similar among groups. CDH patients had a significantly longer duration of intubation and higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension than the other two diagnoses. Given equivalent lung volumes (40%-60% of expected), CDH patients require more pulmonary support initially than omphalocele and CLM patients. In addition to lung volumes, disease-specific factors, such as pulmonary hypertension in CDH, also contribute to pulmonary morbidity and overall outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 01/2015; 50(1):55-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.10.031 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: sAimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of abdomen-to-thorax ratio (ATR) measured by antenatal ultrasonography for predicting neonatal survival of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).Material and Methods We identified 75 fetuses who were prenatally diagnosed with CDH and delivered in Seoul National University Hospital from 1998 to 2012, retrospectively. Of these, 40 cases who met the following criteria were included: (i) singleton pregnancy; (ii) a case that had available ultrasonographic images; and (iii) a neonate in whom follow-up until discharge from the hospital was available. ATR was measured as follows: each anteroposterior distance (APD) in the abdominal and thoracic cavity was measured in the same midsagittal plane with the fetal neutral position. A thoracic APD was measured from the back to the distal end of the sternum and an abdominal APD from the back to the most protruding abdominal surface. ATR is the ratio of the abdominal APD versus the thoracic APD.ResultsSurvival rates were 57.5%. There were significant differences in ATR, lung–head ratio (LHR), observed/expected-LHR, quantitative lung index and intrathoracic liver between survivors and non-survivors. Regression analysis demonstrated that only ATR and intrathoracic position of the liver were independent predictors of survival. ATR by multivariate analysis had the most influence on survival rate (P = 0.002). The area under the receiver–operator curve for prediction of survival from ATR was 0.770 (P = 0.004). The diagnostic cut-off value for ATR was 0.96.Conclusions Because ATR is effective to predict neonatal survival in CDH fetuses and is easy to measure, it can be used as another powerful parameter for managing CDH fetuses.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 09/2014; 40(9). DOI:10.1111/jog.12473 · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we review the indications, technical aspects, preliminary results, risks, and clinical implications of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) performed outside the United States and its potential future directions in this country and globally. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia occurs in approximately 1 in 2500 live births and results in high neonatal morbidity and mortality, largely associated with the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary arterial hypertension. With the advent of prenatal imaging, CDH can be diagnosed before birth, and in utero treatment is now available in some centers. The prognosis of CDH can be evaluated by assessing the fetal lung size, the degree of liver herniation, and the fetal pulmonary vasculature in isolated forms of CDH. These parameters help classify fetuses as having mild, moderate, severe, or extremely severe isolated CDH. Severe and extremely severe diaphragmatic hernias have poor outcomes and thus are candidates for innovative therapies such as FETO. Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion is usually performed between 26 and 30 weeks' gestation. In utero, an endoscope is passed through the fetal mouth and down to the carina; the balloon is deployed just above the carina. After the procedure, ultrasound surveillance every 2 weeks ensures the balloon's structural integrity and measures the fetal pulmonary response. At approximately 34 weeks' gestation, the balloon is deflated and removed. Fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion is thought to improve outcomes by decreasing mortality and allowing more rapid neonatal stabilization. Ultimately, the goal of FETO is to minimize pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Following delivery, neonates still require diaphragm repair.
    Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 03/2014; 69(3):147-158. DOI:10.1097/OGX.0000000000000045 · 2.36 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
4 Downloads
Available from
Sep 11, 2014