Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in spinal cord contributes to vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia in mice.
ABSTRACT Chronic treatment with vincristine (VCR) causes mechanical allodynia as an adverse effect. We previously reported that peripheral macrophage-derived interleukin-6 played a critical role in VCR-induced allodynia. However, the involvement of glial cell activation and central sensitization in VCR-induced allodynia is still unclear. In this study, we focused on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in spinal cord, and investigated the role of TNF-alpha in VCR-induced allodynia in mice. VCR (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to mice once per day for 7 days. The expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and the protein in spinal cord was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In VCR-treated mice, TNF-alpha mRNA gradually increased and was significantly up-regulated on day 7. As measured by immunohistochemistry, microglia and astrocytes were activated in the spinal dorsal horn on day 7 of VCR administration. The immunoreactivity of TNF-alpha was co-localized in some of the activated microglia and astrocytes. In behavioral analysis, a neutralizing antibody of TNF-alpha, which was injected intrathecally on days 0, 3, and 6, significantly attenuated VCR-induced mechanical allodynia on days 4 and 7. These results suggest that VCR treatments elicited the activation of glial cells in spinal cord, and up-regulated TNF-alpha in these cells may play an important role in VCR-induced mechanical allodynia.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism of vincristine-induced pain in humans undergoing chemotherapy we have established a model of vincristine-induced hyperalgesia in rat. Vincristine (100 micrograms/kg) was administered daily over a period of two weeks. An acute dose-dependent decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold and an increased response to non-noxious mechanical stimuli ("hyperalgesia") occurred after the second day of administration. Chronic lowered threshold and increased response to stimuli (determined 24 h after each injection) was first noted during the second week of vincristine administration. Responses gradually returned to baseline during the two weeks following discontinuation of treatment. Vincristine also increased sensitivity to heat stimulation. At a dose that produced hyperalgesia (100 micrograms/kg), vincristine did not cause a significant motor deficit. Peripheral administration of a mu-opioid agonist did not reduce vincristine-induced acute hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia induced by vincristine in the rat provides a good model for the experimental study of painful peripheral neuropathies in human patients receiving vincristine as a chemotherapeutic agent.Neuroscience 08/1996; 73(1):259-65. · 3.12 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microglia, the intrinsic macrophages of the central nervous system, have previously been shown to be activated in the spinal cord in several rat mononeuropathy models. Activation of microglia and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines are known to play a role in inducing a behavioral hypersensitive state (hyperalgesia and allodynia) in these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine whether minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, could attenuate both the development and existing mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in an L5 spinal nerve transection model of neuropathic pain. In a preventive paradigm (to study the effect on the development of hypersensitive behaviors), minocycline (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered daily, beginning 1 h before nerve transection. This regimen produced a decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, with a maximum inhibitory effect observed at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The attenuation of the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia by minocycline was associated with an inhibitory action on microglial activation and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines at the L5 lumbar spinal cord of the nerveinjured animals. The effect of minocycline on existing allodynia was examined after its intraperitoneal administration initiated on day 5 post-L5 nerve transection. Although the postinjury administration of minocycline significantly inhibited microglial activation in neuropathic rats, it failed to attenuate existing hyperalgesia and allodynia. These data demonstrate that inhibition of microglial activation attenuated the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain but had no effect on the treatment of existing mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2003; 306(2):624-30. · 3.89 Impact Factor
- Pain 07/1983; 16(2):109-10. · 5.64 Impact Factor