Efficacy of iron-fortified rice in reducing anemia among schoolchildren in the Philippines.
ABSTRACT Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in the Philippines is a serious public health problem. Fortifying rice offers a great opportunity to control IDA. However, information on other types of fortificants that can be used is scarce.
To compare the effects of two types of iron fortificants in rice in improving the hematological status of schoolchildren. Design: 180 randomly selected 6-to 9-year-old anemic children were randomly allocated to three groups in a double-blinded manner: One group received iron-enriched rice (IER) with extruded iron premix rice (IPR) using ferrous sulfate as fortificant (ExFeSO4); the second group received IER with extruded IPR using micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate (ExFeP80); and the third group received non-fortified rice (Control). These were administered daily for 5 days a week for 6 months. Blood samples were collected at baseline after 3 and 6 months.
At baseline, one child in the ExFeP80 group was suffering from IDA; at 3 months, no IDA was found in any groups; while at 6 months, one child in the ExFeP80 developed IDA. The baseline prevalence of anemia in all groups, which was 100%, was significantly reduced to 51%, 54%, and 63% in the ExFeSO4, ExFeP80 and Control groups respectively. After 6 months, further significant reductions were observed in the ExFeSO4 (38%) and ExFeP80 (33%) but remained at 63% in the Control group. Greater, significant increases were also observed in plasma ferritin in the fortified groups than in the Control group from baseline to 6 months. The predictors of change in hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma ferritin were group allocation and basal values.
The consumption of rice fortified with FeP80 using extrusion technology has similar effects as that of FeSO4 in reducing the prevalence of IDA among schoolchildren.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are ranked among the top causes of poor health and disability in the world. These deficiencies damage developing brains, impair learning ability, increase susceptibility to infections, and reduce the work productivity of nations. Food fortification is a sustainable, cost-effective approach to reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. As the staple food for an estimated 3 billion people, rice has the potential to fill an obvious gap in current fortification programs. In recent years, new technologies have produced fortified rice kernels that are efficacious in reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. There are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice that comes from large mills supplying centralized markets and national welfare programs in major rice-growing countries. The rice export markets, which handle 30 million MT of rice annually, also present a key fortification opportunity. The cost of fortifying rice is only 1.5% to 3% of the current retail price of rice. Countries that mandate rice fortification have the strongest evidence for achieving wide coverage and impact. The Rice Fortification Resource Group (RiFoRG), a global network of public and private partners that offers technical and advocacy support for rice fortification, has a vision of promoting rice fortification worldwide. It has a targeted approach, engaging multisector partners in key countries where the opportunities are greatest and there is receptivity to early adoption of large-scale rice fortification. The challenges are real, the imperative to address them is powerful, and the opportunities to deliver the promise of rice fortification are clear.Food and nutrition bulletin 12/2012; 33(4):296-307. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than two billion people suffer from anemia worldwide, and it is estimated that more than 50 % of cases are caused by iron deficiency. In this community intervention trial, we evaluated infants aged 10 to 23 months of age (n = 171) from two public child day-care centers. Intervention lasted 18 weeks. The 50-g individual portion (uncooked) of fortified rice provided 56.4 mg of elemental iron as ferric pyrophosphate. Capillary blood samples to test for anemia were taken at baseline and at endpoint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of rice fortified with iron (Ultrarice®) on hemoglobin and anemia prevalence compared with standard household rice. For the fortified rice center, baseline mean hemoglobin was 113.7 ± 9.2 g/L, and at endpoint 119.5 ± 7.7 g/L, p < 0.0001; for the standard rice center, baseline mean hemoglobin value was 113.5 ± 40.7 g/L, and at endpoint 113.6 ± 21.0, p = 0.99. Anemia prevalence for the fortified rice center was 27.8 % (20/72) at baseline, and 11.1 % (8/72) at endpoint, p = 0.012; for the control center, 47.1 % (33/70) were anemic at baseline, and 37.1 % (26/70) at the end of the study, p = 0.23. The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) was 4. In this intervention, rice fortified with iron given weekly was effective in increasing hemoglobin levels and reducing anemia in infants.International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 02/2013; 83(1):59-66. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet (MCNut) is the cost of a theoretical diet satisfying all nutrient requirements of a family at the lowest possible cost, based on availability, price, and nutrient content of local foods. A comparison with household expenditure shows the proportion of households that would be able to afford a nutritious diet. To explore using the Cost of Diet (CoD) tool for policy dialogue on food and nutrition security in Indonesia. From October 2011 to June 2012, market surveys collected data on food commodity availability and pricing in four provinces. Household composition and expenditure data were obtained from secondary data (SUSENAS 2010). Focus group discussions were conducted to better understand food consumption practices. Different types of fortified foods and distribution mechanisms were also modeled. Stark differences were found among the four areas: in Timor Tengah Selatan, only 25% of households could afford to meet the nutrient requirements, whereas in urban Surabaya, 80% could. The prevalence rates of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age in the four areas were inversely correlated with the proportion of households that could afford a nutritious diet. The highest reduction in the cost of the child's diet was achieved by modeling provision of fortified blended food through Social Safety Nets. Rice fortification, subsidized or at commercial price, can greatly improve nutrient affordability for households. The CoD analysis is a useful entry point for discussions on constraints on achieving adequate nutrition in different areas and on possible ways to improve nutrition, including the use of special foods and different distribution strategies.Food and nutrition bulletin 06/2013; 34(2 Suppl):S35-42. · 1.50 Impact Factor