Group process and learning: A grounded theory model of group supervision.

Training and Education in Professional Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.58). 07/2010; 4(3):194-203. DOI: 10.1037/a0018970

ABSTRACT While there is a small but growing body of literature on group supervision, it has been limited to a handful of qualitative studies, and quantitative studies that have focused on specific aspects of the supervision process. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model of the process of group supervision and its relation to student learning. A grounded theory design with some features of consensual qualitative research was utilized to achieve this goal. Fifteen counseling psychology doctoral students and three supervisors comprising 13 supervision groups completed questionnaires following each group supervision session over the course of six semesters. Varying degrees of safety were reported by participants and group supervision was either facilitated by safety or inhibited by a lack of safety. However, when students reported feeling safe, a greater variety of learning occurred than when they reported they felt less safe. Also, within a supervision group, students experienced the group differently based on their ability to manage anxiety and develop supportive relationships with other peers in the group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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    ABSTRACT: With the advent of information technology, emails have gained wide acceptability among students as an asynchronous communication tool. According to the current pedagogy literature the overall trend of the use of email communication by university students has been increasing significantly since its inception, despite the rapid growth of the popularity and acceptability of other social mediums (e.g. Mobile phone and Facebook). In this study, we explore a longitudinal email communication network, which evolved under an increasing study load among 38 students throughout a university semester, using measures of social network analysis (SNA) and exponential random graph (ERG) models. This longitudinal network was divided into three waves, where each wave represents the portion of the complete longitudinal network that evolves between two consecutive observations. An increased study load was imposed through the assessment components of the course. SNA measures of degree centrality (i.e. the activity of an actor or actor popularity), betweenness centrality (i.e. the capacity to control the flow of information in a network), closeness centrality (i.e. reachable to other nodes) and reciprocity (i.e. tendency to make reciprocal links) are considered to explore this longitudinal network. ERG models are probabilistic models that are presented by locally determined explanatory variables and can effectively identify structural properties of networks. From the analysis of this email communication network, we notice that students’ network positions and behaviours change with the changes in their study load. In particular, we find that (i) students make an increased number of email communications with the increase of study load; (ii) the email communication network become sparse with the increase of study load; and (iii) the 2-star parameter (a subset of three nodes in which one node is connected to each of the other two nodes) and the triangle parameter (a subset of three nodes in which each node is connected to the other two nodes) can effectively explain the formation of network in wave3; whereas, the 3-star parameter (a subset of four nodes in which one node is connected to each of other three nodes) can effectively explain the formation of network in wave1 and wave2. Interpretations of these findings for the monitoring of student behaviour in online learning environments, as well as the implications for the design of assessment and the use of asynchronous tools are discussed in this paper.
    Computers & Education 11/2013; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2013.11.007 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Group supervision is widely used in clinical and counseling training sites but, until lately, has received minimal attention by researchers. Recent findings point to the possible benefits that process-oriented interventions may hold over a strictly task-focused style, yet this raises important ethical considerations. Currently, there is an insufficient body of research and literature addressing ethics in group supervision. Building on the template developed by K. S. Pope, B. G. Tabachnick, and P. Keith-Spiegel (1987, Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists, American Psychologist, Vol. 42, pp. 993–1006), 145 supervisees and 124 supervisors were surveyed on their beliefs and behaviors related to the ethical practice of group supervision. Results were organized around the themes of norms/structure, supervisee self-disclosure, client confidentiality, and multiple relationships. In most cases, there was remarkable consistency between the supervisors' and supervisees' responses, but in some important areas, the data yielded interesting contrasts. Similarly, for each of the samples, the likelihood that respondents engage in particular behaviors in group supervision typically matches their beliefs in the ethicality (or lack thereof) regarding those behaviors; but again, some discrepancies were present in these data. Implications for the field are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Training and Education in Professional Psychology 11/2012; 6(4):238. DOI:10.1037/a0030806 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes a proposal of a Tutoring and Support Plan for PhD students, designed and conducted by the Competences and Values Development Team of Deusto University. This plan aims to provide the training of the members of the research team with strategies and it is also conceived as an alternative to avoid the feeling of loneliness experienced by PhD students while doing their theses as well as to minimize the dropout rate. The basics of the plan are aimed at developing learning autonomy, collaborative work competence on research teams, reflection practising and scientific knowledge construction. The objectives, the main activities and the results based on the opinions of people involved in the Plan are included in this paper. The evaluation of the Plan carried out both by directors and students is positive. Key Words: PhD tutoring, PhD thesis supervision, autonomy, learning community, PhD studies