Performance of Personality Assessment Inventory and Rorschach Indices of Schizophrenia in a Public Psychiatric Hospital

Psychological Services (Impact Factor: 1.08). 06/2004; 1(2):107-110. DOI: 10.1037/1541-1559.1.2.107


The present study investigated the performance of indices of schizophrenia from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI-SCZ; L. C. Morey, 1991) and Rorschach (Rorschach SCZI; J. E. Exner, 1993) in a heterogeneous sample of 24 inpatients at a public psychiatric hospital in the southeastern United States. Results indicated modest agreement between the PAI-SCZ and Rorschach SCZI. More important, the PAI-SCZ but not Rorschach SCZI reliably differentiated inpatients with schizophrenic-spectrum diagnoses from inpatients with other psychiatric diagnoses. In settings in which psychotic disorders falling outside the schizophrenic spectrum are common, the PAI-SCZ may be better suited than the Rorschach SCZI to aid in the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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Article: Performance of Personality Assessment Inventory and Rorschach Indices of Schizophrenia in a Public Psychiatric Hospital

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    • "diagnostic utility in a variety of populations, including college students (McDevitt-Murphy, Weathers, Flood, Eakin, & Benson, 2007), inmates (Edens & Ruiz, 2008), psychiatric outpatients (Jacobo, Blais, Baity, & Harley, 2007; Stein, Pinsker-Aspen, & Hilsenroth, 2007), psychiatric inpatients (Klonsky, 2004), and medical patients (Corsica, Azarbad, McGill, Wool, & Hood, 2010; Wagner, Wymer, Topping, & Pritchard, 2005). Other research has examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the PAI scales relative to other measures (Bradley, Hilsenroth, Guarnaccia, & Westen, 2007; Douglas, Guy, Edens, Boer, & Hamilton, 2007; Morey, 1991; Stein et al., 2007; Walters & Geyer, 2005; Wang et al., 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study contributes to the ongoing construct validation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991 , 2007 ) by identifying nontest life-event correlates of the PAI full scales and subscales in a sample of psychiatric patients. The life-event data used in this study included education, marital status, and employment, as well as a history of suicide attempts, psychiatric hospitalizations, trauma, medical problems, hallucinations, paranoid ideation, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and arrest. Correlations were calculated to explore the convergent and discriminant validity of the PAI scales relative to the life-event data. The results showed that the majority of the PAI scales (11 of 13) had meaningful correlations with at least 1 life-event variable. The PAI BOR scale had the greatest number of correlations and was associated with 8 life-event variables. In contrast, the PAI ANX and MAN scales had no correlations above a predetermined threshold (r ≥.21). These findings add to the growing body of empirical correlates of the PAI and generally provide support for the construct validity of the PAI scales.
    Journal of Personality Assessment 05/2012; 94(6):593-600. DOI:10.1080/00223891.2012.681817 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite administering the PAI orally, it is worth noting that the mean scores for the general population control sample were quite similar to mean scores obtained from large-scale studies of general population prison inmates (see, e.g., Edens & Ruiz, 2005). Similarly , the scale elevations for the patient sample reported in Table 1 were consistent with other prison psychiatric samples (e.g., Edens & Ruiz, 2005; Wang, Rogers, Giles, Diamond, Herrington-Wang, & Taylor, 1997) as well as generally similar to samples of forensic patients (e.g., Douglas, Hart, & Kropp, 2001; Walters, Duncan, & Geyer, 2003) and civil psychiatric patients (e.g., Klonsky, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the utility of three instruments, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (Smith & Burger, 1997), and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) to detect malingering among prisoners. We examined 4 inmate samples: (a) prisoners instructed to malinger, (b) "suspected malingerers" identified by psychiatric staff, (c) general population control inmates, and (d) psychiatric patients. Intercorrelations among the measures for the total sample (N = 115) were quite high, and receiver operating characteristic analyses suggested similar rates of overall predictive accuracy across the measures. Despite this, commonly recommended cut scores for these measures resulted in widely differing rates of sensitivity and specificity across the subsamples. Moreover, although all instruments performed well in the nonpsychiatric samples (i.e., simulators and controls), classification accuracy was noticeably poorer when attempting to differentiate between psychiatric patients and suspected malingerers, with only 2 PAI indicators significantly discriminating between them.
    Journal of Personality Assessment 02/2007; 88(1):33-42. DOI:10.1080/00223890709336832 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    • "An alternative personality measure that is gaining more widespread use is the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) which only requires 40-50 minutes to complete (Strauss et al., 2006). Although the PAI recently was the subject of a special issue in the Journal of Personality Assessment (Kurtz & Blais, 2007), and the test has been used in multiple contexts with widely varied populations, including forensic (Duellman & Bowers, 2004), law enforcement (Weiss, Rostow, Davis, & DeCoster- Martin, 2004; Weiss, Zehner, Davis, Rostow, & DeCoster-Martin, 2005), traumatic brain injury (Demakis et al., 2007; Kurtz, Shealy, & Putnam, 2007), chronic pain (Karlin et al., 2005), schizophrenia (Klonsky, 2004), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Crawford, Calhoun, Braxton, & Beckham, 2007), " few studies have been published bearing on the utility of the PAI in the neuropsychological context " (Strauss et al., p. 1130). This study attempts to redress the paucity of research using the PAI in the context of outpatient neuropsychological practice, with an emphasis on the evaluation of college students. "
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    ABSTRACT: The integration of cognitive neuroscience with neuropsychology has been advocated (Stuss & Levine, 2002). Lichter and Cummings' (2001) description of "circuit specific behavioral syndromes" suggested that an "orbitofrontal (OF) syndrome" could be discriminated from a "dorsolateral-prefrontal (DLPF) syndrome," based on a theoretical model of frontal-subcortical circuits. Using Morey's (1991) Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), a cluster variate of antisocial features, aggression, mania, and obsessive-compulsive behavior was selected to partition a diagnostically heterogeneous, archival sample of clinic-referred college students (N = 22) using cluster analysis. A two-group cluster solution emerged from the results of combined hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning procedures, potentially corresponding to the putative OF and DLPF classifications. The "OF profile group" obtained significantly higher scores on self-report measures of antisocial features, aggression, mania/hypomania, and obsessive-compulsive behavior than the "DLPF profile group." External validation of the cluster solution employing univariate logistic regression analyses suggested the DLPF profile group performed more poorly than the OF profile group on measures of sustained attention and spatial working memory, and the OF profile group performed more poorly than the DLPF profile group on a measure of color naming. Utilizing the PAI in conjunction with neuropsychological tests to assist in identifying OF and DLPF neurobehavioral profiles is suggested. Implications for treatment and academic accommodations for clinic-referred college students are discussed.
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