Subfunctionality of hydride transferases of the old yellow enzyme family of flavoproteins of Pseudomonas putida.
ABSTRACT To investigate potential complementary activities of multiple enzymes belonging to the same family within a single microorganism, we chose a set of Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) homologs of Pseudomonas putida. The physiological function of these enzymes is not well established; however, an activity associated with OYE family members from different microorganisms is their ability to reduce nitroaromatic compounds. Using an in silico approach, we identified six OYE homologs in P. putida KT2440. Each gene was subcloned into an expression vector, and each corresponding gene product was purified to homogeneity prior to in vitro analysis for its catalytic activity against 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). One of the enzymes, called XenD, lacked in vitro activity, whereas the other five enzymes demonstrated type I hydride transferase activity and reduced the nitro groups of TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene derivatives. XenB has the additional ability to reduce the aromatic ring of TNT to produce Meisenheimer complexes, defined as type II hydride transferase activity. The condensations of the primary products of type I and type II hydride transferases react with each other to yield diarylamines and nitrite; the latter can be further reduced to ammonium and serves as a nitrogen source for microorganisms in vivo.
Article: The 1.3 A crystal structure of the flavoprotein YqjM reveals a novel class of Old Yellow Enzymes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Here we report the crystal structure of YqjM, a homolog of Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) that is involved in the oxidative stress response of Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the oxidized and reduced enzyme form, the structures of complexes with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-nitrophenol, respectively, were solved. As for other OYE family members, YqjM folds into a (alpha/beta)8-barrel and has one molecule of flavin mononucleotide bound non-covalently at the COOH termini of the beta-sheet. Most of the interactions that control the electronic properties of the flavin mononucleotide cofactor are conserved within the OYE family. However, in contrast to all members of the OYE family characterized to date, YqjM exhibits several unique structural features. For example, the enzyme exists as a homotetramer that is assembled as a dimer of catalytically dependent dimers. Moreover, the protein displays a shared active site architecture where an arginine finger (Arg336) at the COOH terminus of one monomer extends into the active site of the adjacent monomer and is directly involved in substrate recognition. Another remarkable difference in the binding of the ligand in YqjM is represented by the contribution of the NH2-terminal Tyr28 instead of a COOH-terminal tyrosine in OYE and its homologs. The structural information led to a specific data base search from which a new class of OYE oxidoreductases was identified that exhibits a strict conservation of active site residues, which are critical for this subfamily, most notably Cys26, Tyr28, Lys109, and Arg336. Therefore, YqjM is the first representative of a new bacterial subfamily of OYE homologs.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2005; 280(30):27904-13. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelins act through 2 receptors, namely, ET(A) and ET(B). In the cerebral circulation, ET(A) mediates marked and prolonged vasoconstriction, and its blockade increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduces ischemic brain damage. However, the role of ET(B) receptors remains unclear. In this study we examined, in rats, the kinetics of expression of ET(B) and the effects of ET(B) blockade on changes in CBF and brain damage after focal cerebral ischemia and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxic injury. Rats were subjected to transient (60 minutes) focal cerebral ischemia or cortical injection of NMDA. The selective ET(B) antagonist BQ-788 was injected intracerebroventricularly 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after the onset of ischemia. Cortical perfusion was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry. The volume of infarction or NMDA-induced cortical lesion was assessed at 24 hours after the insult. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique was used to assess ET(B) expression. Cerebral ischemia failed to alter the expression of ET(B) mRNA in both acute and chronic stages. Administration of BQ-788 resulted in an increase in infarction volume (178%; P<0.05) accompanied by a decrease in residual CBF (-26.7% versus control; P<0.01). In these animals we found a positive correlation between the volume of infarction and the severity of the decrease in CBF. NMDA-induced cortical lesions were not affected by the administration of BQ-788. Our results suggest that the ET(B) antagonist BQ-788 induces deleterious effects that are mediated by the reduction of residual blood flow after ischemia and argue that the optimal therapeutic strategy in stroke would be to target the use of selective ET(A) antagonists and not mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonists.Stroke 01/2003; 33(12):3019-25. · 5.73 Impact Factor