Cell microencapsulation technology: towards clinical application.
ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetic properties of a drug can be significantly improved by the delivery process. Scientists have understood that developing suitable drug delivery systems that release the therapeutically active molecule at the level and dose it is needed and during the optimal time represents a major advance in the field. Cell microencapsulation is an alternative approach for the sustained delivery of therapeutic agents. This technology is based on the immobilization of different types of cells within a polymeric matrix surrounded by a semipermeable membrane for the long-term release of therapeutics. As a result, encapsulated cells are isolated from the host immune system while allowing exchange of nutrients and waste and release of the therapeutic agents. The versatility of this approach has stimulated its use in the treatment of numerous medical diseases including diabetes, cancer, central nervous system diseases and endocrinological disorders among others. The aim of this review article is to give an overview on the current state of the art of the use of cell encapsulation technology as a controlled drug delivery system. The most important advantages of this type of "living" drug release strategy are highlighted, but also its limitations pointed out, and the major challenges to be addressed in the forthcoming years are described.
- SourceAvailable from: pnas.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current approaches to tissue regeneration are limited by the death of most transplanted cells and/or resultant poor integration of transplanted cells with host tissue. We hypothesized that transplanting progenitor cells within synthetic microenvironments that maintain viability, prevent terminal differentiation, and promote outward migration would significantly enhance their repopulation and regeneration of damaged host tissue. This hypothesis was addressed in the context of muscle regeneration by transplanting satellite cells to muscle laceration sites on a delivery vehicle releasing factors that induce cell activation and migration (hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2) or transplantation on materials lacking factor release. Controls included direct cell injection into muscle, the implantation of blank scaffolds, and scaffolds releasing factors without cells. Injected cells demonstrated a limited repopulation of damaged muscle and led to a slight improvement in muscle regeneration, as expected. Delivery of cells on scaffolds that did not promote migration resulted in no improvement in muscle regeneration. Strikingly, delivery of cells on scaffolds that promoted myoblast activation and migration led to extensive repopulation of host muscle tissue and increased the regeneration of muscle fibers at the wound and the mass of the injured muscle. This previously undescribed strategy for cell transplantation significantly enhances muscle regeneration from transplanted cells and may be broadly applicable to the various tissues and organ systems in which provision and instruction of a cell population competent to participate in regeneration may be clinically useful.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(8):2494-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Encapsulation devices are often hindered by the inability to achieve sufficient oxygen levels for sustaining long-term cell survival both in vivo and in vitro. We have investigated the use of synthetic oxygen carriers in alginate gels to improve metabolic activity and viability of HepG2 cells over time. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), specifically perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) and perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB), were emulsified with alginate and used to encapsulate HepG2 cells in a spherical geometry. Cellular state was assessed using the MTT assay and Live/Dead stain as well as through analysis of both lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels which are indirect indicators of oxygen availability. Addition of 1% surfactant resulted in stable emulsions with evenly dispersed PFC droplets of the order of 1-2 microm in diameter, with no influence on cell viability. Both PFCs evaluated were effective in increasing cellular metabolic activity over alginate-only gels. The presence of 10% PFOB significantly increased cellular growth rate by 10% and reduced both intracellular LDH and extracellular lactate levels by 20-40%, improving glucose utilization efficiency. The characteristic drop in cellular metabolic activity upon encapsulation was eliminated with addition of 10% PFC and viability was better maintained throughout the bead, with a significant decrease in necrotic core size. Results were consistent under a physiologically relevant 5% oxygen environment. The incorporation of PFC synthetic oxygen carriers into encapsulation matrices has been successfully applied to improve cell function and viability with implication for a variety of tissue engineering applications.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 02/2007; 96(1):156-66. · 3.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the survival and osteogenic behavior of murine-derived adipose-tissue stromal cells (ATSCs) encapsulated in alginate microcapsules thereby instigating further studies in this cell delivery strategy for in vivo osteogenesis. Cell viability was quantified using a tetrazolium-based assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by both alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) histochemistry and osteocalcin mRNA analysis. Following microencapsulation, cell numbers increased from 3.9 x 10(3) on day 1 to 7.8 x 10(3) on day 7 and maintained excellent viability in the course of 21-day culture. ALP was 6.9, 5.5, and 3.2 times higher than monolayer cultures on days 7, 14, and 21, respectively. In addition, osteocalcin mRNA was detectable in encapsulated cultures earlier (day 14) than monolayer cultures. We conclude that alginate microcapsules can act as three-dimensional matrix for ATSC proliferation and has potential for use as injectable, biodegradable scaffold in bone tissue engineering.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2006; 347(1):185-91. · 2.41 Impact Factor