The Relationship Between Unwillingness-to-Communicate and Students’ Facebook Use

Journal of Media Psychology Theories Methods and Applications (Impact Factor: 1.66). 01/2008; 20(2):67-75. DOI: 10.1027/1864-1105.20.2.67


A survey with 172 students was conducted at a large southern research university to examine how unwillingness-to-communicate in interpersonal communication influences gratifications sought and gratifications obtained from Facebook use. The study investigated the relationship between two dimensions of unwillingness-to-communicate (approach-avoidance and reward) and different motives of Facebook use. In addition, it examined the relationship between unwillingness-to-communicate and the behavioral and attitudinal outcomes of Facebook use (e.g., the number of hours spent on Facebook, duration of use, the number of Facebook friends, satisfaction with Facebook). Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that respondents who felt anxiety and fears in their face-to-face communication used Facebook to pass time and feel less lonely more than other respondents, but they had fewer Facebook friends. Overall, this paper finds evidence that people who are involved in online relationships are those who are willing to communicate in real life, rather than the opposite. Such results seem to justify the rich-get-richer hypothesis, which states that the internet primarily benefits extraverted individuals. Our results are in contrast to findings that socially anxious individuals are more likely to form relationships online. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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Available from: Pavica Sheldon, Mar 07, 2015
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    • "In such an environment where individuals feel protected, selfdisclosure and communication are easier. Online self-disclosure is particularly comfortable for persons who feel discomfort in offline communication, such as introverted, socially anxious or shy individuals (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010; Ebeling-Witte, Frank, & Lester, 2007; Hamburger & Ben-Artzi, 2000; McCord, Rodebaugh, & Levinson, 2014; Sheldon, 2008; Valkenburg et al., 2005; Weidman et al., 2012; Yen et al., 2012). This hypothesis is known as " compensation theory " or Poor-Gets-Richer (Kraut et al., 2002; Valkenburg et al., 2005) and it predicts that individuals who experience difficulties in offline interactions would have the most benefit from the use of SNS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Facebook-related psychological phenomena attracted the great interest of researchers, but to date experiences of Facebook (FB) users were usually operationalized through few objective behavioral measures or through questionnaires which focused only on specific aspects of FB use. This study aimed to construct a comprehensive questionnaire which will capture deeper psychological processes that take place on FB. Through the EFA and CFA, we extracted five dimensions of FB behaviors: Compensatory use of FB, Self-presentation on FB, Socializing and seeking sexual partners through FB, FB addiction, and FB profile as the virtual self. Compensatory and addictive Facebook use is related to personality traits that indicate poor social adaptiveness, such as social anxiety, low conscientiousness, neuroticism, introversion, and low agreeableness, while Self-Presentation on FB further contributes to this maladaptive process. Seeking new friends and intimate partners through Facebook is related to sensation seeking and social anxiety. Realistic virtual representation of one's personality on Facebook is characteristic of individuals who are socially anxious and open to experiences. The scale Psycho-Social Aspects of Facebook Use (PSAFU) covers the wide range of psychological FB phenomena and should be used by researchers interested in a detailed examination of FB users' experiences.
    Computers in Human Behavior 01/2016; 54:425–435. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.032 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "With student–teacher relationships moving to an online venue, it is important to understand if male students are at an advantage over female students. Although women spend more time on Facebook than men (Sheldon, 2008), research (e.g., Hewitt & Forte, 2006; Teclehaimanot & Hickman, 2011) suggests that male students find student–teacher interactions on Facebook to be more appropriate than female students. Previous studies do not provide the rationale for why these gender differences would exist. "
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    ABSTRACT: Social network sites could be used to promote learning inside and outside of the classroom. The current study examines students' reasons and gender differences in adding faculty as Facebook friends. Participants were undergraduate students who completed a survey consisting of closed-ended and open-ended questions. Correlation analysis revealed that students intend to add their professors as Facebook friends in order to get to know them better on a personal level. Despite previous research showing that men find student–teacher interactions on Facebook more appropriate than women, the results of this study found no such difference. Male students, however, were significantly more likely to be friends with their professors for clarification and efficiency reasons. Traditional gender role and social exchange theory could explain some of the findings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Computers in Human Behavior 12/2015; 53:58-62. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.043 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "We found that shy participants were more likely to use SNS for recreation than were less shy participants, and this is consistent with previous research (Ryan & Xenos, 2011). Our result regarding Hypothesis 2 is not surprising when the mixed findings on the relationship between shyness and SNSs use are considered in literature (Orr et al., 2009; Ryan & Xenos, 2011; Sheldon, 2008). A possible reason for the inconsistency might be the different degrees of anonymity on the various SNSs involved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have considered the personal characteristics that may predict the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs). We examined the prediction of SNS use from distinct personality traits (i.e., sociability and shyness), attitudes toward SNS use, motivations for SNS use and Internet self-efficacy. Participants were 352 Chinese college students who used the QQ zone. Results indicated that sociability, shyness, attitudes, motivations and self-efficacy predicted SNS use, prediction depending on the function of SNS use. Specifically, sociability, attitudes, social interaction motivation, entertainment motivation and self-efficacy were significant predictors of SNS’s social function. In contrast, shyness, attitudes, relaxing entertainment motivation and self-efficacy were significant predictors of its recreational function.
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