A Theory of Objective Self-Awareness
ABSTRACT Considers the conditions which cause the consciousness to focus on the self as an object. The theory that self-awareness has motivational properties deriving from social feedback is discussed and considered with relation to conformity, attitude-behavior discrepancies, and communication sets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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- "This study has a secondary objective: to highlight the association between selfconsciousness and the perceived effectiveness of road safety interventions. The concept of selfconsciousness (SC) describes the tendency of an individual to pay attention to themselves, to a greater or lesser extent, and, therefore, their awareness of their own characteristics (Duvall & Wicklund, 1972). This consciousness can be induced by the situation (self-awareness) or constitute a stable disposition (self-consciousness) and concerns internal elements not directly visible to an observer (attitudes, emotions, memories, knowledge etc.) as well as directly observable external elements (behavior, appearance). "
ABSTRACT: We consider road safety interventions to be potential sources of social influence, altering the intentions and behaviors of drivers when they are perceived by the latter as effective. We also consider that perceiving their effectiveness depends on drivers’ self-consciousness. 852 drivers replied to a questionnaire measuring dispositional self-consciousness, the perception of the effectiveness of 10 road safety interventions, and reported intentions and behaviors related to speeding and drinking and driving. The results revealed several phenomena: (1) interventions were perceived as related to penalty/surveillance or social communication (factor analysis); (2) the former were perceived as more effective than the latter; (3) the perceived effectiveness of road safety interventions was moderately correlated with intentions and behaviors; (4) this link was stronger for interventions of the penalty/surveillance type; (5) age, level of education, frequency of use of a vehicle and gender were moderately associated with the perception of these interventions; (6) self-consciousness (in particular its public dimension) had an additional positive association with this perceived effectiveness. These results are discussed from a practical and methodological point of view.Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 10/2015; 34:29-40. DOI:10.1016/j.trf.2015.07.020 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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- "The cognitive advances of adolescence provide new tools for critically evaluating oneself in relation to ideals and standards, and for finding out what is unique for oneself in comparison with others. Using these capacities may spur self-criticism and feelings of isolation (Duval & Wicklund, 1972). Neff and McGehee (2010) found no differences in self-compassion between adolescents and young adults, whereas, in adulthood, self-compassion has been reported to increase with age (Neff & Pommier, 2013; Neff & Vonk, 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Abstract Compassion may be directed at a broad range of targets. The present study investigated interrelations among other-directed compassion, selfcompassion, and environmental compassion in early adolescence (age = 12- 14; n = 256) and examined how the different manifestations of compassion related to age and sex during this age period. Dispositional compassion directed at different targets was assessed through self-reports and peer nominations. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis supported a model that portrayed dispositional compassion toward self, others, and the environment as three distinct but interrelated factors. Other-directed compassion and environmental compassion were higher in girls than in boys. There was a decrease in all forms of compassion with age. The drop in selfcompassion was linked to negative self-perceptions in 13- and 14-year-old girls. The roles of experience and cognitive factors in linking different forms of dispositional compassion are discussed.The Journal of Early Adolescence 07/2015; DOI:10.1177/0272431615594461 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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- "( 1975 ) developed the SCS . The theory behind it was proposed by Mead ( 1934 ) and was further operationalized as the theory of objective self - awareness by Duval and Wicklund ( 1972 ) . The private and public self - consciousness constructs are distinguished based on the direction of the focus of one ' s own attention , i . "
ABSTRACT: This study examines how self-consciousness is defined and assessed using self-report questionnaires (Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Self-Absorption Scale, Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale). Authors of self-report measures suggest that self-consciousness can be distinguished by its private/public aspects, its adaptive/maladaptive applied characteristics, and present/past experiences. We examined these claims in a study using 602 young adults to whom the aforementioned scales were administered. Data were analyzed as follows: (1) correlation analysis to find simple associations between the measures; (2) factorial analysis using Oblimin rotation of total scores provided from the scales; and (3) factorial analysis considering the 102 items of the scales all together. It aimed to clarify relational patterns found in the correlations between SCSs, and to identify possible latent constructs behind these scales. Results support the adaptive/maladaptive aspects of self-consciousness, as well as distinguish to some extent public aspects from private ones. However, some scales that claimed to be theoretically derived from the concept of Private Self-Consciousness correlated with some of its public self-aspects. Overall, our findings suggest that while self-reflection measures tend to tap into past experiences and judged concepts that were already processed by the participants' inner speech and thoughts, the Awareness measure derived from Mindfulness Scale seems to be related to a construct associated with present experiences in which one is aware of without any further judgment or logical/rational symbolization. This sub-scale seems to emphasize the role that present experiences have in self-consciousness, and it is argued that such a concept refers to what has been studied by phenomenology and psychology over more than 100 years: the concept of pre-reflective self-conscious.Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6:930. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00930 · 2.80 Impact Factor