A Theory Of Objective Self Awareness

01/1972; x.


Considers the conditions which cause the consciousness to focus on the self as an object. The theory that self-awareness has motivational properties deriving from social feedback is discussed and considered with relation to conformity, attitude-behavior discrepancies, and communication sets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

93 Reads
    • "Exploring the natural properties of mental imagery , here we demonstrated that temporal projection is characterized by natural shifts in visual perspective ( Duval & Wicklund , 1972 ; Pronin & Ross , 2006 ; Wicklund , 1975 ) . When simulating an event in the distant future , participants adopt an experiential vantage point in which they view themselves from an outside perspective ( i . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A widely endorsed belief is that perceivers imagine their present selves using a different representational format than imagining their future selves (i.e., near future=first-person; distant future=third-person). But is this really the case? Responding to the paucity of work on this topic, here we considered how temporal distance influences the extent to which individuals direct their attention outward or inward during a brief imaginary episode. Using a non-verbal measure of visual perspective taking (i.e., letter-drawing task) our results confirmed the hypothesized relation between temporal distance and conceptions of the self. Whereas simulations of an event in the near future were dominated by a first-person representation of the self, this switched to a third-person depiction when the event was located in the distant future. Critically, this switch in vantage point was restricted to self-related simulations. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are considered.
    Consciousness and Cognition 12/2015; 37:207-213. DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2015.09.009 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Several authors have suggested that SFA is not maladaptive per se but only under certain conditions and in certain contexts ( Duval and Wicklund , 1972 ; Pyszczynski and Greenberg , 1987 ; Carver and Scheier , 1998 ) . As described above , most theoretical models assume that SFA becomes dysfunctional if an individual experiences a negative discrepancy between a current and a desired personal state . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Self-focused attention (SFA) is considered a cognitive bias that is closely related to depression. However, it is not yet well understood whether it represents a disorder-specific or a trans-diagnostic phenomenon and which role the valence of a given context is playing in this regard. Computerized quantitative text-analysis offers an integrative psycho-linguistic approach that may help to provide new insights into these complex relationships. The relative frequency of first-person singular pronouns in natural language is regarded as an objective, linguistic marker of SFA. Here we present two studies that examined the associations between SFA and symptoms of depression and anxiety in two different contexts (positive vs. negative valence), as well as the convergence between pronoun-use and self-reported aspects of SFA. In the first study, we found that the use of first-person singular pronouns during negative but not during positive memory recall was positively related to symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa with varying levels of co-morbid depression and anxiety. In the second study, we found the same pattern of results in non-depressed individuals. In addition, use of first-person singular pronouns during negative memory recall was positively related to brooding (i.e., the assumed maladaptive sub-component of rumination) but not to reflection. These findings could not be replicated in two samples of depressed patients. However, non-chronically depressed patients used more first-person singular pronouns than healthy controls, irrespective of context. Taken together, the findings lend partial support to theoretical models that emphasize the effects of context on self-focus and consider SFA as a relevant trans-diagnostic phenomenon. In addition, the present findings point to the construct validity of pronoun-use as a linguistic marker of maladaptive self-focus.
    Frontiers in Psychology 11/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01564 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "This study has a secondary objective: to highlight the association between selfconsciousness and the perceived effectiveness of road safety interventions. The concept of selfconsciousness (SC) describes the tendency of an individual to pay attention to themselves, to a greater or lesser extent, and, therefore, their awareness of their own characteristics (Duvall & Wicklund, 1972). This consciousness can be induced by the situation (self-awareness) or constitute a stable disposition (self-consciousness) and concerns internal elements not directly visible to an observer (attitudes, emotions, memories, knowledge etc.) as well as directly observable external elements (behavior, appearance). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We consider road safety interventions to be potential sources of social influence, altering the intentions and behaviors of drivers when they are perceived by the latter as effective. We also consider that perceiving their effectiveness depends on drivers’ self-consciousness. 852 drivers replied to a questionnaire measuring dispositional self-consciousness, the perception of the effectiveness of 10 road safety interventions, and reported intentions and behaviors related to speeding and drinking and driving. The results revealed several phenomena: (1) interventions were perceived as related to penalty/surveillance or social communication (factor analysis); (2) the former were perceived as more effective than the latter; (3) the perceived effectiveness of road safety interventions was moderately correlated with intentions and behaviors; (4) this link was stronger for interventions of the penalty/surveillance type; (5) age, level of education, frequency of use of a vehicle and gender were moderately associated with the perception of these interventions; (6) self-consciousness (in particular its public dimension) had an additional positive association with this perceived effectiveness. These results are discussed from a practical and methodological point of view.
    Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 10/2015; 34:29-40. DOI:10.1016/j.trf.2015.07.020 · 1.99 Impact Factor
Show more