Comparison of drug-induced sleep endoscopy and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the association between findings from drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: This was a consecutive series of subjects with OSA who underwent DISE and lateral cephalometry. DISE findings were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification (velum, oropharyngeal lateral walls, tongue, and epiglottis). The primary measurements from lateral cephalometry images were sella-nasion-point A angle, sella-nasion-point B angle, distance from the posterior nasal spine-tip of palate, posterior airway space, and mandibular plane to hyoid (MPH) distance, although additional airway measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics summarized DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, and χ(2) and t tests examined potential associations between their findings. RESULTS: Among the 55 subjects, most demonstrated velum-related obstruction, although obstruction related to other structures was also common. Lateral cephalometry findings were within population norms with the exception of an increased MPH and decreased airway 4 and airway 5 measurements. There was little association between DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, although significant associations were identified between tongue-related obstruction and airway measurements posterior to the tongue base. CONCLUSIONS: DISE and lateral cephalometry are largely distinct airway evaluation techniques in OSA. The use of these techniques remains complementary. Laryngoscope, 2012.
SourceAvailable from: Marina Carrasco Llatas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Although drug-induced sedation endoscopy (DISE) represents the most widespread diagnostic tool for upper airway endoscopic evaluation of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), many controversies exist about how to perform the sedation, the indications for DISE, and how to report DISE findings. The present position paper reports on a consensus as proposed by a group of European experts in the field of DISE after discussion during a recent dedicated meeting. Methods The authors have evaluated all the available evidence reported in the literature and have compared experience among various departments in leading European centers in order to provide a standardization of the DISE procedure and an in-depth insight in the main aspects of this technique. Results A proposal of the DISE procedure standardization has been achieved with a general agreement concerning the terminology, indications, contraindications, required preliminary examinations, setting, technical equipment required, staffing, local anesthesia and nasal decongestion, patient positioning, basis and special diagnostic maneuvers, and the applied sedation drugs and observation windows.Otherwise, no consensus has been reached on a scoring and classification system. Conclusions Although consensus has been reached on several aspects of the DISE procedure, some topics remain open to future research, such as a better analysis of the importance of positional aspects during DISE and a further comparison of the differences in degree, level and pattern of upper airway collapse observed during DISE versus during natural sleep and awake endoscopy. Finally, a universally accepted scoring and classification system is lackingSleep And Breathing 05/2014; 18(3). DOI:10.1007/s11325-014-0989-6 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences amongst the general public as well as the majority of primary care physcians across India is poor. This necessiated the development of the INdian initiative on Obstructive sleep apnoea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥ 15 such episodes without any sleep related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents and high risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography (PSG) is the "gold standard" for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer oral appliances to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioural measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy.The Indian Journal of Medical Research 09/2014; 140(3):451-68. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 +/- A 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0 %) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7 %) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3 %) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position.Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde 08/2014; 2014 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print](2). DOI:10.1007/s00405-014-3215-z · 1.61 Impact Factor