Teplizumab treatment may improve C-peptide responses in participants with type 1 diabetes after the new-onset period: a randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 diabetes results from a chronic autoimmune process continuing for years after presentation. We tested whether treatment with teplizumab (a Fc receptor non-binding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody), after the new-onset period, affects the decline in C-peptide production in individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a randomised placebo-controlled trial we treated 58 participants with type 1 diabetes for 4-12 months with teplizumab or placebo at four academic centres in the USA. A central randomisation centre used computer generated tables to allocate treatments. Investigators, patients, and caregivers were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was a comparison of C-peptide responses to a mixed meal after 1 year. We explored modification of treatment effects in subgroups of patients. RESULTS: Thirty-four and 29 subjects were randomized to the drug and placebo treated groups, respectively. Thirty-one and 27, respectively, were analysed. Although the primary outcome analysis showed a 21.7% higher C-peptide response in the teplizumab-treated group (0.45 vs 0.371; difference, 0.059 [95% CI 0.006, 0.115] nmol/l) (p = 0.03), when corrected for baseline imbalances in HbA(1c) levels, the C-peptide levels in the teplizumab-treated group were 17.7% higher (0.44 vs 0.378; difference, 0.049 [95% CI 0, 0.108] nmol/l, p = 0.09). A greater proportion of placebo-treated participants lost detectable C-peptide responses at 12 months (p = 0.03). The teplizumab group required less exogenous insulin (p < 0.001) but treatment differences in HbA(1c) levels were not observed. Teplizumab was well tolerated. A subgroup analysis showed that treatment benefits were larger in younger individuals and those with HbA(1c) <6.5% at entry. Clinical responders to teplizumab had an increase in circulating CD8 central memory cells 2 months after enrolment compared with non-responders. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS: This study suggests that deterioration in insulin secretion may be affected by immune therapy with teplizumab after the new-onset period but the magnitude of the effect is less than during the new-onset period. Our studies identify characteristics of patients most likely to respond to this immune therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00378508 FUNDING: This work was supported by grants 2007-502, 2007-1059 and 2006-351 from the JDRF and grants R01 DK057846, P30 DK20495, UL1 RR024139, UL1RR025780, UL1 RR024131 and UL1 RR024134 from the NIH.
SourceAvailable from: Todd Michael Brusko[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Previous efforts to preserve β cell function in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have focused largely on the use of single immunomodulatory agents administered within 100 days of diagnosis. Based on human and preclinical studies, we hypothesized that a combination of low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and pegylated granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) would preserve β cell function in patients with established T1D (duration of T1D >4 months and <2 years). METHODS. A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 25 subjects: 17 subjects received ATG (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) followed by pegylated G-CSF (6 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 doses) and 8 subjects received placebo. The primary outcome was the 1-year change in AUC C-peptide following a 2-hour mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). At baseline, the age (mean ± SD) was 24.6 ± 10 years; mean BMI was 25.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2; mean A1c was 6.5% ± 1.1%; insulin use was 0.31 ± 0.22 units/kg/d; and length of diagnosis was 1 ± 0.5 years. RESULTS. Combination ATG/G-CSF treatment tended to preserve β cell function in patients with established T1D. The mean difference in MMTT-stimulated AUC C-peptide between treated and placebo subjects was 0.28 nmol/l/min (95% CI 0.001-0.552, P = 0.050). A1c was lower in ATG/G-CSF-treated subjects at the 6-month study visit. ATG/G-CSF therapy was associated with relative preservation of Tregs. CONCLUSIONS. Patients with established T1D may benefit from combination immunotherapy approaches to preserve β cell function. Further studies are needed to determine whether such approaches may prevent or delay the onset of the disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01106157. FUNDING. The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust and Sanofi.Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/2014; 125(1). DOI:10.1172/JCI78492 · 13.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus affects 347 million people worldwide, and over 80 % of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the attacks of the body's own immune system on the pancreatic β-cells. In this work, we present a new CTLA-4 Ig targeting at the surface of β-cell and prepare it from Escherichia coli aiming at clearing activated T cells around β-cells and avoiding all-round decline in systematic immunity. This fusion protein is composed of CTLA-4-Ig part and β-cell-targeting part, with properties of the therapeutic effect of CTLA-4-Ig and selective binding to β-cells. In preliminary biological activity assay, our results verified the feasibility of β-cell-targeting strategy and its activity of CTLA-4-Ig part. The fusion protein recognizes and binds specifically to CD80(+) and CD86(+) cells as well as β-cell, but not to control cells, displaying the potential to be used as a feasible and effective treatment of T1D with lessened side effect.Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 11/2014; 71(2). DOI:10.1007/s12013-014-0282-0 · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immune-deficient mice, reconstituted with human stem cells, have been used to analyze human immune responses in vivo. Although they have been used to study immune responses to xenografts, allografts, and pathogens, there have not been models of autoimmune disease in which the mechanisms of the pathologic process can be analyzed. We have found that reconstituted "humanized" mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 Ab (ipilimumab) develop autoimmune disease characterized by hepatitis, adrenalitis, sialitis, anti-nuclear Abs, and weight loss. Induction of autoimmunity involved activation of T cells and cytokine production, and increased infiltration of APCs. When anti-CTLA-4 mAb-treated mice were cotreated with anti-CD3 mAb (teplizumab), hepatitis and anti-nuclear Abs were no longer seen and weight loss did not occur. The anti-CD3 blocked proliferation and activation of T cells, release of IFN-γ and TNF, macrophage infiltration, and release of IP-10 that was induced with anti-CTLA-4 mAb. We also found increased levels of T regulatory cells (CD25(+)CD127(-)) in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mice treated with both Abs and greater constitutive phosphorylation of STAT5 in T regulatory cells in spleen cells compared with mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 mAb alone. We describe a model of human autoimmune disease in vivo. Humanized mice may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of biologics that are used in patients. Hepatitis, lymphadenopathy, and other inflammatory sequelae are adverse effects of ipilimumab treatment in humans, and this study may provide insights into this pathogenesis and the effects of immunologics on autoimmunity.The Journal of Immunology 06/2014; 193(2). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302455 · 5.36 Impact Factor