Teplizumab treatment may improve C-peptide responses in participants with type 1 diabetes after the new-onset period: A randomised controlled trial

Departments of Immunobiology and Internal Medicine, Yale University, 300 George St, 353E, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA, .
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.67). 10/2012; 56(2). DOI: 10.1007/s00125-012-2753-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 diabetes results from a chronic autoimmune process continuing for years after presentation. We tested whether treatment with teplizumab (a Fc receptor non-binding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody), after the new-onset period, affects the decline in C-peptide production in individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a randomised placebo-controlled trial we treated 58 participants with type 1 diabetes for 4-12 months with teplizumab or placebo at four academic centres in the USA. A central randomisation centre used computer generated tables to allocate treatments. Investigators, patients, and caregivers were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was a comparison of C-peptide responses to a mixed meal after 1 year. We explored modification of treatment effects in subgroups of patients. RESULTS: Thirty-four and 29 subjects were randomized to the drug and placebo treated groups, respectively. Thirty-one and 27, respectively, were analysed. Although the primary outcome analysis showed a 21.7% higher C-peptide response in the teplizumab-treated group (0.45 vs 0.371; difference, 0.059 [95% CI 0.006, 0.115] nmol/l) (p = 0.03), when corrected for baseline imbalances in HbA(1c) levels, the C-peptide levels in the teplizumab-treated group were 17.7% higher (0.44 vs 0.378; difference, 0.049 [95% CI 0, 0.108] nmol/l, p = 0.09). A greater proportion of placebo-treated participants lost detectable C-peptide responses at 12 months (p = 0.03). The teplizumab group required less exogenous insulin (p < 0.001) but treatment differences in HbA(1c) levels were not observed. Teplizumab was well tolerated. A subgroup analysis showed that treatment benefits were larger in younger individuals and those with HbA(1c) <6.5% at entry. Clinical responders to teplizumab had an increase in circulating CD8 central memory cells 2 months after enrolment compared with non-responders. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS: This study suggests that deterioration in insulin secretion may be affected by immune therapy with teplizumab after the new-onset period but the magnitude of the effect is less than during the new-onset period. Our studies identify characteristics of patients most likely to respond to this immune therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00378508 FUNDING: This work was supported by grants 2007-502, 2007-1059 and 2006-351 from the JDRF and grants R01 DK057846, P30 DK20495, UL1 RR024139, UL1RR025780, UL1 RR024131 and UL1 RR024134 from the NIH.

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Available from: Steve Willi, Mar 17, 2014
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    • "Central to the onset and progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the loss of tolerance to specific self-antigens, resulting in immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing cells. Therefore , a major theme of current diabetes research is restoration of balance within the immune system using treatments ranging from systemic immunosuppression to activation or inhibition of specific immune signaling pathways to infusion of specific regulatory cell populations [1] [2]. One promising approach is vaccination with diabetic autoantigens, which can inhibit destructive isletspecific responses and induce regulatory responses [3] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease that is initiated by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells that is accompanied by the development of antigen-specific antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Several studies have shown that vaccination with diabetic autoantigens provides some protection against this process. In this report we describe a new oral vaccine that utilizes live attenuated Salmonella for simultaneous delivery of autoantigens in conjunction with immunomodulatory cytokine genes to immune cells in the gut mucosa. Recent data showed that live attenuated Salmonella is a safe, simple and effective vector for expression of antigens and cytokines by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT). This novel strategy was tested by fusion of the diabetic autoantigen preproinsulin with Salmonella secretory effector protein (SseF) of pathogenicity island-2 (SPI2). In this way the autoantigen is only expressed inside the host immune cells and translocated to the host cell cytosol. In addition Salmonella was used to deliver the gene for the immunomodulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) for host cell expression. Oral co-vaccination of 8 week-old non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with three weekly doses of both the autoantigen and cytokine significantly reduced the development of diabetes, improved the response to glucose challenge, preserved beta cell mass, and reduced the severity of insulitis compared with controls and autoantigen alone. Combination therapy also resulted in increased circulating levels of IL10 four weeks post-vaccination and IL2 for 12 weeks post-vaccination, but without effect on proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL12(p70), IL17 and IFNγ. However, in non-responders there was a significant rise in IL12 compared with responders. Future studies will examine the mechanism of this vaccination strategy in more detail. In conclusion, Salmonella-based oral vaccines expressing autoantigens combined with imunomodulatory cytokines appears to be a promising therapy for prevention of T1D.
    Vaccine 03/2014; 32(20). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.070 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    • "They are largely immunomodulatory agents that act by ‘suppressing’ the inflammatory autoimmune process targeting the beta cell. Whilst some of them act to modulate the autoimmune process specifically against beta cell antigens [18], others act through broad, non-antigen specific immune suppression [19]. Many of these therapies are associated with significant risk of side effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exercise has a beta cell preserving effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. This benefit of exercise has not been examined in type 1 diabetes. Significant beta cell function is present at the time of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and therefore studies of beta cell preservation are ideally conducted immediately after diagnosis.Many of the variables required to design and power such a study are currently unknown. The aim of EXTOD is to obtain the information required to design a formal study of exercise and beta cell preservation in newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Barriers to exercise will initially be assessed in a qualitative study of newly diagnosed patients. Then, sixty newly diagnosed adult type 1 diabetes patients will be randomized to either conventional treatment or exercise, stratified on beta cell function and fitness. The exercise group will be encouraged to increase their level of activity to a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity exercise per week, aiming for 240 minutes per week of exercise for 12 months. Beta cell function will be measured by meal-stimulated C peptide. Primary outcomes are recruitment, adherence to exercise, loss to follow-up, and exercise levels in the non-intervention arm (contamination). The secondary outcome of the study is rate of loss of beta cell function. Discussion: The outcomes of the EXTOD study will help define the barriers, uptake and benefits of exercise in adults newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. This information will enable design of a formal study to assess the effect of exercise on beta cell preservation in newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes. Trial registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN91388505.
    Trials 06/2013; 14(1):180. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-180 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Sera were collected from nondiabetic control subjects, participants with T1D in a clinical trial of teplizumab (Delay), and patients with long-standing T1D. The Delay trial was a randomized placebo-controlled trial testing whether a course of treatment with teplizumab would reduce the decline in C-peptide after 12 months in patients with T1D for 4–12 months’ duration (15). From the total of 58 subjects, baseline samples were available on 43 subjects and paired samples (at baseline and 1 year) on 37 subjects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. The killing of β-cells is not currently measurable; β-cell functional studies routinely used are affected by environmental factors such as glucose and cannot distinguish death from dysfunction. Moreover, it is not known whether immune therapies affect killing. We developed an assay to identify β-cell death by measuring relative levels of unmethylated INS DNA in serum and used it to measure β-cell death in a clinical trial of teplizumab. We studied 43 patients with recent-onset T1D, 13 nondiabetic subjects, and 37 patients with T1D treated with FcR nonbinding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (teplizumab) or placebo. Patients with recent-onset T1D had higher rates of β-cell death versus nondiabetic control subjects, but patients with long-standing T1D had lower levels. When patients with recent-onset T1D were treated with teplizumab, β-cell function was preserved (P < 0.05) and the rates of β-cell were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). We conclude that there are higher rates of β-cell death in patients with recent-onset T1D compared with nondiabetic subjects. Improvement in C-peptide responses with immune intervention is associated with decreased β-cell death.
    Diabetes 02/2013; 62(5). DOI:10.2337/db12-1207 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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