Journal of Police Science & Administration 02/1984; 12:32-40.
Describes the process of psychological profiling, which focuses attention on individuals with personality traits that parallel traits of others who have committed similar offenses. Close examination of the crime scene and the extrapolation of certain relevant psychological material leads to a profile. However, not all crime scenes are appropriate for profiling; only where psychopathology is evidenced will the scene lend itself to being profiled. Certain crimes are most appropriate: sadistic torture in sexual assaults, evisceration, postmortem slashings and cuttings, postmortem explorations, motiveless arson, lust and mutilation murders, ritualistic crimes, and rapes. Research has shown that psychological profiling is useful in focusing the investigation properly, helping to locate possible suspects, identifying suspects, and assisting in the prosecution of suspects. Psychological profiling is one investigative tool among many and is not a magical solution, but it is an attempt to use behavioral and psychodynamic principles of psychology in an applied setting. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"Given this state of affairs, one might wonder why police officers continue to request the assistance of profilers. Whereas some police officers report using CP because they believe that it works (e.g., Copson, 1995; Jackson et al., 1993; Pinizzotto, 1984), there are likely other officers who use CP but do not believe that it works. We suspect that some of these officers might use CP because they believe (or are instructed) that it is their duty to use all available investigative techniques. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a belief that criminal profilers can predict a criminal's characteristics from crime scene evidence. In this article, the authors argue that this belief may be an illusion and explain how people may have been misled into believing that criminal profiling (CP) works despite no sound theoretical grounding and no strong empirical support for this possibility. Potentially responsible for this illusory belief is the information that people acquire about CP, which is heavily influenced by anecdotes, repetition of the message that profiling works, the expert profiler label, and a disproportionate emphasis on correct predictions. Also potentially responsible are aspects of information processing such as reasoning errors, creating meaning out of ambiguous information, imitating good ideas, and inferring fact from fiction. The authors conclude that CP should not be used as an investigative tool because it lacks scientific support.
"" Indeed, the few studies that have sought to assess profiling have not used serial offense case material. There is some support for this criticism when one considers that the vast majority of literature suggests that profiling is most applicable to serial or recidivistic crimes (Douglas, Ressler, Burgess, & Hartman, 1986; Pinizzotto, 1984; Vorpagel, 1982), as behavioral patterns inherent to an offender are most likely to become apparent only when a series of similar offenses have occurred and can be observed. The current study made use of a series of offenses in an attempt to optimize the behavioral cues discernable from the case material that was the subject of the profiling exercise. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to arson offenses, little empirical research exists to substantiate this claim. This study sought to build on previous studies conducted by Kocsis, Irwin, Hayes, and Nunn (2000) by examining the accuracy of professional profilers with others in constructing a profile of a serial arsonist in response to case information presented. The professional profilers produced the most accurate profiles, followed by a group of university science students. Senior detectives and fire investigators tended to perform the worst and never better than a control group that had no specific information about the crime and could do little more than guess. The results offer some insight into the requisite skills for effective profiling. The key factor appears to be a capacity for objective and logical analysis—a characteristic shared by science students and professional profilers.
"It was not until the 1970s, with the recognition of an increasing prevalence of bizarre and apparently random violent crime, that the FBI Behavioral Science Unit commenced research into offender profiling (Depue 1986; Pinizzotto 1984). Rather than following the lead of the mental health practitioners, the FBI adopted a utilitarian approach (Ressler, Douglas, Groth & Burgess 1980). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its apparent popularity, criminal personality profiling has been poorly evaluated as either an investigative aid or a conceptual tool. This article documents some aspects of the development of offender profiling. Importantly, it identifies and differentiates the different styles of profiling and their distinct conceptual orientations. The literature is also reviewed to extract what conclusions can be drawn with respect to the validity, utility and ethics of offender profiles in criminal investigations and what this may mean for psychology, psychiatry and the law in general.
Psychiatry Psychology and Law 04/1997; 4(1). DOI:10.1080/13218719709524891 · 0.35 Impact Factor
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