Effect of the MDM2 antagonist RG7112 on the P53 pathway in patients with MDM2-amplified, well-differentiated or dedifferentiated liposarcoma: an exploratory proof-of-mechanism study
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: We report a proof-of-mechanism study of RG7112, a small-molecule MDM2 antagonist, in patients with chemotherapy-naive primary or relapsed well-differentiated or dedifferentiated MDM2-amplified liposarcoma who were eligible for resection. METHODS: Patients with well-differentiated or dedifferentiated liposarcoma were enrolled at four centres in France. Patients received up to three 28-day neoadjuvant treatment cycles of RG7112 1440 mg/m(2) per day for 10 days. If a patient progressed at any point after the first cycle, the lesion was resected or, if unresectable, an end-of-study biopsy was done. The primary endpoint was to assess markers of RG7112-dependent MDM2 inhibition and P53 pathway activation (P53, P21, MDM2, Ki-67, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 [MIC-1], and apoptosis). All analyses were per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2009-015522-10. RESULTS: Between June 3, and Dec 14, 2010, 20 patients were enrolled and completed pretreatment and day 8 biopsies. 18 of 20 patients had TP53 wild-type tumours and two carried missense TP53 mutations. 14 of 17 assessed patients had MDM2 gene amplification. Compared with baseline, P53 and P21 concentrations, assessed by immunohistochemistry, had increased by a median of 4·86 times (IQR 4·38-7·97; p=0·0001) and 3·48 times (2·05-4·09; p=0·0001), respectively, at day 8 (give or take 2 days). At the same timepoint, relative MDM2 mRNA expression had increased by a median of 3·03 times (1·23-4·93; p=0·003) that at baseline. The median change from baseline for Ki-67-positive tumour cells was -5·05% (IQR -12·55 to 0·05; p=0·01). Drug exposure correlated with blood concentrations of MIC-1 (p<0·0001) and haematological toxicity. One patient had a confirmed partial response and 14 had stable disease. All patients experienced at least one adverse event, mostly nausea (14 patients), vomiting (11 patients), asthenia (nine patients), diarrhoea (nine patients), and thrombocytopenia (eight patients). There were 12 serious adverse events in eight patients, the most common of which were neutropenia (six patients) and thrombocytopenia (three patients). DISCUSSION: MDM2 inhibition activates the P53 pathway and decreases cell proliferation in MDM2-amplified liposarcoma. This study suggests that it is feasible to undertake neoadjuvant biopsy-driven biomarker studies in liposarcoma. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.
- SourceAvailable from: Robin L Jones[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with lack of effective treatments in most cases. Previous data suggest that continuous infusional ifosfamide regimens might improve cytotoxicity and tolerability compared to standard schedules. Methods. We retrospectively report the outcome of 35 patients affected by STS treated with a 14-day infusional ifosfamide regimen (1000 mg/m(2)/day) in our institution. Predictive factors for toxicity were also explored. Results. Median age was 53 years. There were 16 males and 19 females. Classification by histology was dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS): 22 (62.8%), synovial sarcoma: 7 (20%), myxoid/round-cell liposarcoma: 3 (8.5%), and others: 3 (8.5%). Overall, 7 patients (20%) achieved partial response (PR) and 10 patients (29%) achieved stable disease (SD). DDLPS showed special sensitivity: 5 patients (22.7%) had PR, 7 patients (31.8%) had SD, and disease control rate was 54.5%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.2 and 11.2 months, respectively. The most common toxicities were fatigue, nausea, and vomiting (all grades: 85.7%, 83%, and 54.3%, resp.). Neither hypoalbuminaemia nor gender was found to predict toxicity, although encephalopathy predominantly affected females. Conclusion. Ifosfamide administered as a 14-day continuous infusion is a safe regimen in STS with notable activity in DDLPS.Sarcoma 01/2013; 2013:868973. DOI:10.1155/2013/868973
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The MDM2 and MDMX (also known as HDMX and MDM4) proteins are deregulated in many human cancers and exert their oncogenic activity predominantly by inhibiting the p53 tumour suppressor. However, the MDM proteins modulate and respond to many other signalling networks in which they are embedded. Recent mechanistic studies and animal models have demonstrated how functional interactions in these networks are crucial for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis, and for determining responses to oncogenic and therapeutic challenges. This Review highlights the progress made and pitfalls encountered as the field continues to search for MDM-targeted antitumour agents.Nature Reviews Cancer 01/2013; 13(2). DOI:10.1038/nrc3430 · 29.54 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is the inactivation of the p53 pathway either due to mutations in the p53 gene or over-expression of negative regulators, Mdm2 and/or MdmX. Pharmacological disruption of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction to restore p53 activity is an attractive concept, aiming at a targeted and non-toxic cancer treatment. Areas covered: The introduction covers the biological role of p53 pathway and its regulation by Mdm2 and MdmX in normal and cancer cells and the current repertoire and development status of inhibitors of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction for the treatment of cancer. The main part of the article covers patents and patent applications describing small molecule inhibitors of the Mdm2/X-p53 interaction published from 2011 until 2012. Expert opinion: The area of small molecule Mdm2/X-p53 interaction inhibitor development is progressing fast. Several Phase I clinical studies and preclinical programs are now in progress, however, the clinical proof concept has yet to be demonstrated. Multiple available compounds inhibit Mdm2-p53 interaction with nanomolar affinities, but MdmX is still missing such potent binders. Since research points to a complementary mode of Mdm2 and MdmX action, the future compound classes will possibly want to include dual actions versus Mdm2 and MdmX.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 02/2013; DOI:10.1517/13543776.2013.765405 · 3.44 Impact Factor