A PP4 Holoenzyme Balances Physiological and Oncogenic Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Signaling in T Lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT Signal transduction to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) involves multiple kinases and phosphorylated target proteins, but little is known about signal termination by dephosphorylation. By RNAi screening, we have identified protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 1 (PP4R1) as a negative regulator of NF-κB activity in T lymphocytes. PP4R1 formed part of a distinct PP4 holoenzyme and bridged the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) complex and the phosphatase PP4c, thereby directing PP4c activity to dephosphorylate and inactivate the IKK complex. PP4R1 expression was triggered upon activation and proliferation of primary human T lymphocytes and deficiency for PP4R1 caused sustained and increased IKK activity, T cell hyperactivation, and aberrant NF-κB signaling in NF-κB-addicted T cell lymphomas. Collectively, our results unravel PP4R1 as a previously unknown activation-associated negative regulator of IKK activity in lymphocytes whose downregulation promotes oncogenic NF-κB signaling in a subgroup of T cell lymphomas.
- SourceAvailable from: André Luis da Costa-da-Silva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anopheles aquasalis is a major malaria vector in coastal areas of South and Central America where it breeds preferentially in brackish water. This species is very susceptible to Plasmodium vivax and it has been already incriminated as responsible vector in malaria outbreaks. There has been no high-throughput investigation into the sequencing of An. aquasalis genes, transcripts and proteins despite its epidemiological relevance. Here we describe the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the An. aquasalis transcriptome.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 07/2014; 8(7):e3005. · 4.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PP4 is a serine/threonine phosphatase required for immunoglobulin (Ig) VDJ recombination and pro-B/pre-B cell development in mice. To elucidate the role of PP4 in mature B cells, we ablated the catalytic subunit of murine PP4 in vivo utilizing the CD23 promoter and cre-loxP recombination and generated CD23crePP4F/F mice. The development of follicular and marginal zone B cells was unaffected in these mutants, but the proliferation of mature PP4-deficient B cells stimulated by in vitro treatment with either anti-IgM antibody (Ab) or LPS was partially impaired. Interestingly, the induction of CD80 and CD86 expression on these stimulated B cells was normal. Basal levels of serum Igs of all isotypes were strongly reduced in CD23crePP4F/F mice, and their B cells showed a reduced efficiency of class switch recombination (CSR) in vitro upon stimulation by LPS or LPS plus IL-4. When CD23crePP4F/F mice were challenged with either the T cell-dependent antigen TNP-KLH or the T cell-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, or by H1N1 virus infection, the mutant animals failed to form germinal centers (GCs) in the spleen and the draining mediastinal lymph nodes, and did not efficiently mount antigen-specific humoral responses. In the resting state, PP4-deficient B cells exhibited pre-existing DNA fragmentation. Upon stimulation by DNA-damaging drug etoposide in vitro, mutant B cells showed increased cleavage of caspase 3. In addition, the mutant B cells displayed impaired CD40-mediated MAPK activation, abnormal IgM-mediated NF-κB activation, and reduced S phase entry upon IgM/CD40-stimulation. Taken together, our results establish a novel role for PP4 in CSR, and reveal crucial functions for PP4 in the maintenance of genomic stability, GC formation, and B cell-mediated immune responses.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107505. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TRAFs constitute a family of proteins that have been implicated in signal transduction by immunomodulatory cellular receptors and viral proteins. TRAF2 and TRAF6 have an E3-ubiquitin ligase activity, which is dependent on the integrity of their RING finger domain and it has been associated with their ability to activate the NF-κB and AP1 signaling pathways. A yeast two-hybrid screen with TRAF2 as bait, identified the regulatory subunit PP4R1 of protein phosphatase PP4 as a TRAF2-interacting protein. The interaction of TRAF2 with PP4R1 depended on the integrity of the RING finger domain of TRAF2. PP4R1 could interact also with the TRAF2-related factor TRAF6 in a RING domain-dependent manner. Exogenous expression of PP4R1 inhibited NF-κB activation by TRAF2, TRAF6, TNF and the Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein LMP1. In addition, expression of PP4R1 downregulated IL8 induction by LMP1, whereas downregulation of PP4R1 by RNA interference enhanced the induction of IL8 by LMP1 and TNF. PP4R1 could mediate the dephosphorylation of TRAF2 Ser11, which has been previously implicated in TRAF2-mediated activation of NF-κB. Finally, PP4R1 could inhibit TRAF6 polyubiquitination, indicating an interference with the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRAF6. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism of NF-κB pathway inhibition which is mediated by PP4R1-dependent targeting of specific TRAF molecules.Cellular Signalling 08/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor