"Coaching Boys into Men": A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Dating Violence Prevention Program

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh/University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: .
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 11/2012; 51(5):431-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.01.018
Source: PubMed


Dating violence (DV)-physical, sexual, and psychological aggression in adolescent romantic relationships-is prevalent among youth. Despite broad calls for primary prevention, few programs with demonstrated effectiveness exist. This cluster-randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a DV perpetration prevention program targeting coaches and high school male athletes.
The unit of randomization was the high school (16 schools), and the unit of analysis was the athlete (N = 2,006 students). Primary outcomes were intentions to intervene, recognition of abusive behaviors, and gender-equitable attitudes. Secondary outcomes explored bystander behaviors and abuse perpetration. Regression models for clustered, longitudinal data assessed between-arm differences in over-time changes in mean levels of continuous outcomes in 1,798 athletes followed up at 3 months.
Intervention athletes' changes in intentions to intervene were positive compared with control subjects, resulting in an estimated intervention effect of .12 (95% CI: .003, .24). Intervention athletes also reported higher levels of positive bystander intervention behavior than control subjects (.25, 95% CI: .13, .38). Changes in gender-equitable attitudes, recognition of abusive behaviors, and DV perpetration were not significant. Secondary analyses estimated intervention impacts according to intensity of program implementation. Compared with control subjects, athletes exposed to full-intensity implementation of the intervention demonstrated improvements in intentions to intervene (.16, 95% CI: .04, .27), recognition of abusive behaviors (.13, 95% CI: .003, .25), and positive bystander intervention (.28, 95% CI: .14, .41).
This cluster-randomized controlled trial supports the effectiveness of a school athletics-based prevention program as one promising strategy to reduce DV perpetration.

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    • "A number of bystander programs recognized for producing positive results in bystander intervention require a significant investment in delivery, implementation and follow-up time. Katz et al. 's (2011) work with MVP, which began with university sports teams and grew to be used in a variety of institutional settings (including the united States Military), and Futures Without Violence's program Coaching Boys into Men (CBIM) (Miller et al., 2012) is geared primarily toward male adolescents on sporting teams. The Fourth R is a more universal approach that has been developed by the Canadian Center for Addiction and Mental Health for use in schools throughout all-student courses such as English or (ages 14–15) Grade Physical & Health Education and which takes up to 28 h of instruction time (Wolfe et al., 2009). "
    Arts & Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/17533015.2015.1091017
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    • "The ultimate question, then, is whether bystander interventions can change sexual violence and dating violence rates in the targeted college population using behavioral measures of both victimization and perpetration . In the two bystander evaluation studies that have addressed this question, one study found a reduction in sexually violent perpetration by men (Gidycz et al., 2011), while the other study reported no change in violence rates associated with the intervention (Miller et al., 2012). No published study has as yet examined the effectiveness of bystander programs to reduce interpersonally violent victimization or perpetration rates in both women and men. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that interventions to engage bystanders in violence prevention increase bystander intentions and efficacy to intervene, yet the impact of such programs on violence remains unknown. This study compared rates of violence by type among undergraduate students attending a college campus with the Green Dot bystander intervention (n = 2,768) with students at two colleges without bystander programs (n = 4,258). Violent victimization rates were significantly (p < .01) lower among students attending the campus with Green Dot relative to the two comparison campuses. Violence perpetration rates were lower among males attending the intervention campus. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
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    • "Programs based on the bystander intervention model (Latané & Darley, 1969) are receiving increased attention as a strategy for reducing sexual violence on high school and college campuses (e.g., Banyard, Moynihan, & Plante, 2007; Coker et al., 2011; Gidycz, Orchowski, & Berkowitz, 2011; Katz, Heisterkamp, & Fleming, 2011; Miller et al., 2012; Moynihan & Banyard, 2008). "
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