Activity-Dependent Proteolytic Cleavage of Neuroligin-1
ABSTRACT Neuroligin (NLG), a postsynaptic adhesion molecule, is involved in the formation of synapses by binding to a cognate presynaptic ligand, neurexin. Here we report that neuroligin-1 (NLG1) undergoes ectodomain shedding at the juxtamembrane stalk region to generate a secreted form of NLG1 and a membrane-tethered C-terminal fragment (CTF) in adult rat brains in vivo as well as in neuronal cultures. Pharmacological and genetic studies identified ADAM10 as the major protease responsible for NLG1 shedding, the latter being augmented by synaptic NMDA receptor activation or interaction with soluble neurexin ligands. NLG1-CTF was subsequently cleaved by presenilin/γ-secretase. Secretion of soluble NLG1 was significantly upregulated under a prolonged epileptic seizure condition, and inhibition of NLG1 shedding led to an increase in numbers of dendritic spines in neuronal cultures. Collectively, neuronal activity-dependent proteolytic processing of NLG1 may negatively regulate the remodeling of spines at excitatory synapses.
SourceAvailable from: Stefanie N Hayer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neuron within 2 to 4 hours after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis, required calcium/calmodulin (CaM) dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target, CREB binding protein (CBP). Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional CRE in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2 indicating that, at least Lrrtm2, is regulated by the classical nuclear calcium- CaMKIV-CREB/CBP pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; 290(9). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.532010 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of glia in modulating neuronal network activity is an important question. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) characteristically express the transmembrane proteoglycan nerve-glia antigen 2 (NG2) and are unique glial cells receiving synaptic input from neurons. The development of NG2+ OPC into myelinating oligodendrocytes has been well studied, yet the retention of a large population of synapse-bearing OPC in the adult brain poses the question as to additional functional roles of OPC in the neuronal network. Here we report that activity-dependent processing of NG2 by OPC-expressed secretases functionally regulates the neuronal network. NG2 cleavage by the α-secretase ADAM10 yields an ectodomain present in the extracellular matrix and a C-terminal fragment that is subsequently further processed by the γ-secretase to release an intracellular domain. ADAM10-dependent NG2 ectodomain cleavage and release (shedding) in acute brain slices or isolated OPC is increased by distinct activity-increasing stimuli. Lack of NG2 expression in OPC (NG2-knockout mice), or pharmacological inhibition of NG2 ectodomain shedding in wild-type OPC, results in a striking reduction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and alterations in the subunit composition of their α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr opionicacid (AMPA) receptors. In NG2-knockout mice these neurons exhibit diminished AMPA and NMDA receptor-dependent current amplitudes; strikingly AMPA receptor currents can be rescued by application of conserved LNS protein domains of the NG2 ectodomain. Furthermore, NG2-knockout mice exhibit altered behavior in tests measuring sensorimotor function. These results demonstrate for the first time a bidirectional cross-talk between OPC and the surrounding neuronal network and demonstrate a novel physiological role for OPC in regulating information processing at neuronal synapses.PLoS Biology 11/2014; 12(11):e1001993. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001993 · 11.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has essential synapse promoting functions. Synaptogenic activity as well as cell adhesion properties of APP presumably depend on trans-cellular dimerization via its extracellular domain. Since neuronal APP is extensively processed by secretases, it raises the question if APP shedding affects its cell adhesion and synaptogenic properties. We show that inhibition of APP shedding using cleavage deficient forms of APP or a dominant negative α-secretase strongly enhanced its cell adhesion and synaptogenic activity suggesting that synapse promoting function of APP is tightly regulated by α-secretase mediated processing, similar to other trans-cellular synaptic adhesion molecules.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8(410). DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00410 · 4.18 Impact Factor