p75NTR Mediates Ephrin-A Reverse Signaling Required for Axon Repulsion and Mapping

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Neuron (Impact Factor: 15.05). 10/2008; 59(5):746-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.032
Source: PubMed


Reverse signaling by ephrin-As upon binding EphAs controls axon guidance and mapping. Ephrin-As are GPI-anchored to the membrane, requiring that they complex with transmembrane proteins that transduce their signals. We show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) serves this role in retinal axons. p75(NTR) and ephrin-A colocalize within caveolae along retinal axons and form a complex required for Fyn phosphorylation upon binding EphAs, activating a signaling pathway leading to cytoskeletal changes. In vitro, retinal axon repulsion to EphAs by ephrin-A reverse signaling requires p75(NTR), but repulsion to ephrin-As by EphA forward signaling does not. Constitutive and retina-specific p75(NTR) knockout mice have aberrant anterior shifts in retinal axon terminations in superior colliculus, consistent with diminished repellent activity mediated by graded ephrin-A reverse signaling induced by graded collicular EphAs. We conclude that p75(NTR) is a signaling partner for ephrin-As and the ephrin-A- p75(NTR) complex reverse signals to mediate axon repulsion required for guidance and mapping.

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    • "According to this model, a second gradient system—formed by ephrinAs with a receptor function expressed on retinal axons (nasal > temporal) and EphAs with a ligand function expressed in the SC (rostral > caudal)—also contributes to the mapping process (Figure 1; Suetterlin et al., 2012). This model is supported by a number of EphA KO and knock-in approaches (Carreres et al., 2011; Lim et al., 2008; Rashid et al., 2005; Yoo et al., 2011) as well as in vitro experiments (Gebhardt et al., 2012; Lim et al., 2008; Marler et al., 2010; Rashid et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: EphrinAs and EphAs play critical roles during topographic map formation in the retinocollicular projection; however, their complex expression patterns in both the retina and superior colliculus (SC) have made it difficult to uncover their precise mechanisms of action. We demonstrate here that growth cones of temporal axons collapse when contacting nasal axons in vitro, and removing ephrinAs from axonal membranes by PI-PLC treatment abolishes this response. In conditional knockout mice, temporal axons display no major targeting defects when ephrinA5 is removed only from the SC, but substantial mapping defects were observed when ephrinA5 expression was removed from both the SC and from the retina, with temporal axons invading the target areas of nasal axons. Together, these data indicate that ephrinA5 drives repellent interactions between temporal and nasal axons within the SC, and demonstrates for the first time that target-independent mechanisms play an essential role in retinocollicular map formation in vivo.
    Neuron 10/2014; 84(4). DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.09.023 · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    • "These results suggest that the EphA7 barriers may provide a repulsive force that constrains the axonal navigation pathway and prevents axons for exiting to the outgrowth corridor. Similar repulsive forces mediated by EphA7 have been described in wild type retinal axons (Rashid et al., 2005; Lim et al., 2008). At the lateral RP, axons are in contact with SCO-spondin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bilaterally symmetric organisms need to exchange information between the two sides of their bodies in order to integrate sensory inputs and coordinate motor control. This exchange occurs through commissures formed by neurons that project axons across the midline to the contralateral side of the central nervous system. The posterior commissure is the first transversal axonal tract of the embryonic vertebrate brain. It is located in the dorsal portion of the prosomere 1, at the caudal diencephalon. The axons of the posterior commissure principally come from neurons of ventrolateral and dorsolateral pretectal nuclei (parvocellular and magnocellular nucleus of the posterior commissure, respectively) that extend their axons toward the dorsal region. The trajectory of these axons can be divided into the following three stages: (1) dorsal axon extension towards the lateral roof plate; (2) fasciculation in the lateral roof plate; and (3) midline decision of turning to the ipsilateral side or continuing to the opposite side. The mechanisms and molecules that guide the axons during these steps are unknown. In the present work, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses were performed, with results suggesting the participation of EphA7 in guiding axons from the ventral to the dorsal region of the prosomere 1 through the generation of an axonal corridor limited by repulsive EphA7 walls. At the lateral roof plate, the axons became fasciculated in presence of SCO-spondin until reaching the midline. Finally, EphA7 expression was observed in the diencephalic midline roof plate, specifically in the region where some axons turn to the ipsilateral side, suggesting its participation in this decision. In summary, the present work proposes a mechanism of posterior commissure formation orchestrated by the complementary expression of the axon guidance cues SCO-spondin and EphA7.
    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 06/2014; 8:49. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2014.00049 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Rather, it is more likely that p75 functions independently of TrkB ligands and instead interacts with a different factor to influence axon guidance. p75 is known to interact with several different guidance molecules, including ephrins [40]. Also, p75 modulates activity of the chemorepellent semaphorin3A (Sema3A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) regulate the survival of gustatory neurons, axon growth and branching, and innervation of taste buds during development. These actions are largely, but not completely, mediated through the tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB. Here, we investigated the role of p75, the other major receptor for BDNF and NT4, in the development of the taste system. Results We found that p75−/−mice showed delayed axon outgrowth and reduced branching of gustatory axons at embryonic day (E)13.5. From E14.5 to E18.5, gustatory neurons innervated fewer papillae and completely failed to innervate the mid-region of the tongue in p75−/−mice. These early effects of the p75 mutation on gustatory axons preceded the loss of geniculate ganglion neurons starting at E14.5 and also contributed to a loss of taste buds at and after birth. Because knockouts for the TrkB receptor (TrkB−/−) do not lose as many taste buds as hybrid knockouts for its two ligands (BDNF and NT4), we asked if p75 maintains those additional taste buds in the absence of TrkB. It does not; hybrid TrkB−/−/p75−/−mice had more taste buds than TrkB−/−mice; these additional taste buds were not due to an increase in neurons or innervation. Conclusions p75 regulates gustatory neuron axon branching and tongue innervation patterns during taste system development. This function is likely accomplished independently of BDNF, NT4, and TrkB. In addition, p75 does not support the remaining neurons or taste buds in TrkB−/−mice.
    Neural Development 06/2014; 9(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1749-8104-9-15 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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