Article

15-Lipoxygenase-1 activates tumor suppressor p53 independent of enzymatic activity

Eicosanoid Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.01). 12/2008; 123(12):2741-9. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.23855
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 15-LOX-1 and its metabolites are involved in colorectal cancer. Recently, we reported that 15-LOX-1 overexpression in HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells inhibited cell growth by induction of p53 phosphorylation (4). To determine whether the 15-LOX-1 protein or its metabolites are responsible for phosphorylation of p53 in HCT-116 cells, we used HCT-116 cells that expressed a mutant 15-LOX-1. The mutant 15-LOX-1 enzyme, with a substitution of Leu at residue His361, was devoid of enzymatic activity. HCT-116 cells transiently transfected with either native or mutant 15-LOX-1 showed an increase in p53 phosphorylation and an increase in the expression of downstream genes. Thus, 15-LOX-1 induces p53 phosphorylation independent of enzymatic activity. Treatment of A549 human lung carcinoma cells with IL-4 increased the expression of 15-LOX-1 and also increased the expression of downstream targets of p53. This confirmed that the activation of p53 was also observed in wild-type cells expressing physiological 15-LOX-1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that 15-LOX-1 interacts with, and binds to, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). The binding of 15-LOX-1 to DNA-PK caused an approximate 3.0-fold enhancement in kinase activity, resulting in increased p53 phosphorylation at Ser15. Knockdown of DNA-PK by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced p53 phosphorylation. Furthermore, confocal microscopy demonstrated a colocalization of 15-LOX and DNA-PK in the cells. We propose that the 15-LOX-1 protein binds to DNA-PK, increasing its kinase activity and results in downstream activation of the tumor suppressor p53, thus revealing a new mechanism by which lipoxygenases (LOX) may influence the phenotype of tumor cells.

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