Posttraumatic Epilepsy: Hemorrhage, Free Radicals and the Molecular Regulation of Glutamate
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury causes development of posttraumatic epilepsy. Bleeding within neuropil is followed by hemolysis and deposition of hemoglobin in neocortex. Iron from hemoglobin and transferring is deposited in brains of patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. Iron compounds form reactive free radical oxidants. Microinjection of ferric ions into rodent brain results in chronic recurrent seizures and liberation of glutamate into the neuropil, as is observed in humans with epilepsy. Termination of synaptic effects of glutamate is by removal via transporter proteins. EAAC-1 is within neurons while GLT-1 and GLAST are confined to glia. Persistent down regulation of GLAST production is present in hippocampal regions in chronic seizure models. Down regulation of GLAST may be fundamental to a sequence of free radical reactions initiated by brain injury with hemorrhage. Administration of antioxidants to animals causes interruption of the sequence of brain injury responses induced by hemorrhage, suggesting that such a strategy needs to be evaluated in patients with traumatic brain injury.
- SourceAvailable from: Keiko KatoUnderlying Mechanisms of Epilepsy, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-765-9
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ABSTRACT: This review considers the pathobiology of non-impact blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT). The pathobiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been historically studied in experimental models mimicking features seen in the civilian population. These brain injuries are characterized by primary damage to both gray and white matter and subsequent evolution of secondary pathogenic events at the cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels, which collectively mediate widespread neurodegeneration. An emerging field of research addresses brain injuries related to the military, in particular blast-induced brain injuries. What is clear from the effort to date is that the pathobiology of military TBIs, particularly BINT, has characteristics not seen in other types of brain injury, despite similar secondary injury cascades. The pathobiology of primary BINT is extremely complex. It comprises systemic, local, and cerebral responses interacting and often occurring in parallel. Activation of the autonomous nervous system, sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver, and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms significantly contributing to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 10/2009; 30(2):255-66. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.203 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE. Hsp60 was also increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons somata and neuropil and hippocampus proper (CA3, CA1) of the epileptic rats. We also determined the circulating levels of Hsp60 in epileptic animals and TLE patients using ELISA. The epileptic rats showed circulating levels of Hsp60 higher than controls. Likewise, plasma post-seizure Hsp60 levels in patients were higher than before the seizure and those of controls. These results demonstrate that Hsp60 is increased in both animals and patients with TLE in affected tissues, and in plasma in response to epileptic seizures, and point to it as biomarker of hippocampal stress potentially useful for diagnosis and patient management.Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:9434. DOI:10.1038/srep09434 · 5.08 Impact Factor