Despite recent attention and impressive results with damage control resuscitation, the appropriate ratio of blood products to be transfused has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether suggested blood product ratios yield superior survival rates.
After IRB approval, a retrospective evaluation was performed on all trauma exsanguination protocol (TEP, n = 118) activations from February 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007. A comparison cohort (pre-TEP, n = 140) was selected from all trauma admissions between August 1, 2004 and January 31, 2006 that (1) underwent immediate surgery by the trauma team and (2) received greater than 10 units of PRBC in the first 24 hours. We then compared those who received FFP:RBC (2:3) and platelet:RBC (1:5) ratios with those who did not reach these ratios. Multivariate analysis was performed for independent predictors of mortality.
A total of 259 patients were available for study. Patients receiving FFP:RBC at a ratio of 2:3 or greater (n = 64) had a significant reduction in 30-day mortality compared with those who received less than a 2:3 ratio (n = 195); 41% versus 62%, p = 0.008. Patients receiving platelets:RBC at a ratio of 1:5 or greater (n = 63) had a lower 30-day mortality when compared with those with who received less than this ratio (n = 196); (38% vs. 61%, p = 0.001). Regression model demonstrated that a ratio of FFP to PRBC is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality, controlling for age and TRISS (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.01-3.14).
Increased FFP:PRBC and PLT:PRBC ratios during a period of massive transfusion improved survival after major trauma. Massive transfusion protocols should be designed to achieve these ratios to provide maximal benefit.
"In civilian trauma, about 5% of patients undergoes massive transfusion  . Multiple retrospective studies have suggested that aggressive resuscitation with blood products to achieve a high ratio (2:3 ratio) of plasma to red blood cells (RBC) improved survival   . It is not very clear whether the high ratio resuscitation or the products made available actually improved survival. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
About 5% of civilian trauma requires massive transfusion. Protocolized resuscitation with blood products to achieve high plasma:RBC ratio has been advocated to improve survival. Our objectives were to measure compliance to our institutional MTP, to identify quality assurance activities that could improve protocol compliance and to determine if protocol compliance was related to patient outcome.
The investigators determined 13 compliance criteria based upon our institutional protocol. We measured compliance in 72 consecutive MTP activations between January 2010 and September 2011 at a Level I trauma centre. Data elements were retrospectively retrieved from blood bank, trauma registry and clinical records. Patients were stratified into three groups based on compliance level, and mortality differences were compared.
Average compliance for the cohort (n=72) was 66%. The most common cause of non-compliance was failure to send a complete haemorrhage panel from the trauma bay (96%). Failure to monitoring blood work every 30min occurred in 89% of cases. Delay in activation and deactivation occurred in 50% and 50% respectively. Non-compliance to protocol-based administration of blood products happened in 47%. The cohort was stratified into three groups based on compliance, A: <60%, B: 60-80% and C: >80% (low, moderate and high compliance groups). There was no statistical significance with regard to median age, median ISS, ED SBP, ED GCS and AIS of the head/spine, chest and abdomen. The mortality rates in each group were 62%, 50% and 10% in the low, moderate and high compliance groups respectively. Mortality differences were compared using adjusted logistic regression. The OR for mortality between Groups A and B=1.1 [95% CI 0.258-4.687 (P=0.899)] while the OR for mortality between Groups C and B=0.02 [95% CI <0.001-0.855 (P=0.041)].
Measures should be directed towards provider and system factors to improve compliance. In this study, there was an association between survival and higher level of compliance.
"A variety of protocols have been reported such as a 1:1:1 ratio for pRBC, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets . In adults, these protocols have been shown to result in faster delivery of blood products, decreased rates of multi-organ failure, and improved 30- day survival    . Despite this, there is still a significant amount of controversy regarding which ratio is the most effective and research in this area is ongoing. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The purpose of this study was to quantify the incidence, patient profile, and outcomes associated with massive transfusion in paediatric trauma patients prior to establishing a massive transfusion protocol.
We performed a retrospective review of paediatric trauma patients treated at London Heath Sciences Centre between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011. Inclusion criteria were Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 12 and age less than 18 years.
435 patients met the inclusion criteria. 356 (82%) did not receive packed red blood cells in the first 24 hours, 66 (15%) received a non-massive transfusion (<40 mL/kg), and 13 (3%) received a massive transfusion (>40 mL/kg). Coagulopathy of any kind was more common in massive transfusion (11/13; 85%) than non-massive (32/66; 49%) (p = 0.037). Hyperkalemia (18% versus 23%; p = 0.98) and hypocalcemia (41% versus 46%; p = 1.00) were similar in both groups. Of the 13 massively transfused patients, 9 had multisystem injuries due to a motor vehicle collision, 3 had non-accidental head injuries requiring surgical evacuation, and 1 had multiple stab wounds. In the absence of a massive transfusion protocol, only 8 of the 13 patients received both fresh frozen plasma and platelets in the first 24 hours. Massive transfusion occurred in patients from across the age spectrum and was associated with severe injuries (mean ISS = 33), a higher incidence of severe head injuries (92%), longer hospital stay (mean = 36 days), and increased mortality (38%).
This study is the first to describe the incidence, complications, and outcomes associated with massive transfusion in paediatric trauma patients prior to a massive transfusion protocol. Massive transfusion occurred in 3% of patients and was associated with coagulopathy and poor outcomes. Protocols are needed to ensure that resuscitation occurs in a coordinated fashion and that patients are given appropriate amounts of fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemostatic therapy in surgical and/or massive trauma patients typically involves transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Purified human fibrinogen concentrate may offer an alternative to FFP in some instances. In this systematic review, we investigated the current evidence for the use of FFP and fibrinogen concentrate in the perioperative or massive trauma setting.
Studies reporting the outcome (blood loss, transfusion requirement, length of stay, survival and plasma fibrinogen level) of FFP or fibrinogen concentrate administration to patients in a perioperative or massive trauma setting were identified in electronic databases (1995 to 2010). Studies were included regardless of type, patient age, sample size or duration of patient follow-up. Studies of patients with congenital clotting factor deficiencies or other haematological disorders were excluded. Studies were assessed for eligibility, and data were extracted and tabulated.
Ninety-one eligible studies (70 FFP and 21 fibrinogen concentrate) reported outcomes of interest. Few were high-quality prospective studies. Evidence for the efficacy of FFP was inconsistent across all assessed outcomes. Overall, FFP showed a positive effect for 28% of outcomes and a negative effect for 22% of outcomes. There was limited evidence that FFP reduced mortality: 50% of outcomes associated FFP with reduced mortality (typically trauma and/or massive bleeding), and 20% were associated with increased mortality (typically surgical and/or nonmassive bleeding). Five studies reported the outcome of fibrinogen concentrate versus a comparator. The evidence was consistently positive (70% of all outcomes), with no negative effects reported (0% of all outcomes). Fibrinogen concentrate was compared directly with FFP in three high-quality studies and was found to be superior for > 50% of outcomes in terms of reducing blood loss, allogeneic transfusion requirements, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay and increasing plasma fibrinogen levels. We found no fibrinogen concentrate comparator studies in patients with haemorrhage due to massive trauma, although efficacy across all assessed outcomes was reported in a number of noncomparator trauma studies.
The weight of evidence does not appear to support the clinical effectiveness of FFP for surgical and/or massive trauma patients and suggests it can be detrimental. Perioperatively, fibrinogen concentrate was generally associated with improved outcome measures, although more high-quality, prospective studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
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