Hostile and benevolent sexism: Measuring ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women.

Psychology of Women Quarterly (Impact Factor: 2.12). 02/1997; DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00104.x

ABSTRACT Presents a theory of sexism as ambivalence, not just hostility, toward women. Ambivalent Sexism Theory distinguishes between hostile and "benevolent" sexism (each addresses issues of power, gender differentiation, and sexuality). Benevolent sexism encompasses subjectively positive attitudes toward women in traditional roles: protective paternalism, idealization of women, and desire for intimate relations. Hostile sexism encompasses the negative equivalents on each dimension: dominative paternalism, derogatory beliefs, and heterosexual hostility. It is argued that both forms of sexism serve to justify and maintain patriarchy and traditional gender roles. The validity of a measure of these constructs, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), is reviewed. Comparisons are offered between the ASI and other frequently used scales of attitudes toward women, with suggestions for the proper domains of different scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the effects of ambivalent sexist attitudes on the attribution of emotions to men and women in terms of the emotion valence and perceived humanness. In line with ambivalent sexism theory, Study 1 showed that hostile sexist men attributed less positive emotions to women, and benevo-lent sexist men attributed more positive emotions. Similarly, men's hostile attitudes toward men predicted the attribution of more negative and less positive emotions to men, with the reverse pattern for benevolent attitudes. Also as hypothesized, Study 2 showed that hostile sexism uniquely predicted less favourable attributions to career women, whereas benevolent sexism predicted more favourable attributions to housewives. Finally, although there was no evidence for infrahumanization on the part of hostile sexists, findings from Study 2 revealed the infrahumanization of housewives. The implications for ambivalent sexism theory and for gender infrahumanization are discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Applying the Needs-Based Model of Reconciliation to contexts of group disparity, two studies examined how messages from outgroup representatives that affirmed the warmth or competence of advantaged or disadvantaged groups influenced their members’ intergroup attitudes. Study 1 involved natural groups differing in status; Study 2 experimentally manipulated status. In both studies, advantaged-group members responded more favorably, reporting more positive outgroup attitudes and willingness to change the status quo toward equality, to messages reassuring their group’s warmth. Disadvantaged-group members responded more favorably to messages affirming their group’s competence. Study 2 further demonstrated that the effectiveness of reassuring a disadvantaged group’s competence stemmed from restoring its threatened dimension of identity, irrespective of a change of the status quo. In line with Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), these results indicate that beyond the competition over tangible resources, groups are concerned with restoring threatened dimensions of their identities. Exchanging messages that remove identity-related threats may promote not only positive intergroup attitudes but also greater willingness to act collectively for intergroup equality.
    European Journal of Social Psychology 05/2013; 43:489-492. · 1.78 Impact Factor

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