Enhanced neurogenesis from neural progenitor cells with G1/S-phase cell cycle arrest is mediated by transforming growth factor beta1.
ABSTRACT We have previously demonstrated that a G1/S-phase cell cycle blocker, deferoxamine (DFO), increased the number of new neurons from rat neurosphere cultures, which correlated with prolonged expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27(kip1) [H. J. Kim et al. (2006)Brain Research, 1092, 1-15]. The present study focuses on neuronal differentiation mechanisms following treatment of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) with a G1/S-phase cell cycle blocker. The addition of DFO (0.5 mm) or aphidicolin (Aph) (1.5 microm) to neurospheres for 8 h, followed by 3 days of differentiation, resulted in an increased number of neurons and neurite outgrowth. DFO induced enhanced expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and cdk5 at 24 h after differentiation, whereas Aph only increased TGF-beta1 expression. DFO-induced neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth were attenuated by administration of a cdk5 inhibitor, roscovitine, suggesting that the neurogenic mechanisms differ between DFO and Aph. TGF-beta1 (10 ng/mL) did not increase neurite outgrowth but rather the number of beta-tubulin III-positive cells, which was accompanied by enhanced p27(kip1) mRNA expression. In addition, TGF-beta receptor type II expression was observed in nestin-positive NPCs. Results indicated that DFO-induced TGF-beta1 signaling activated smad3 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In contrast, TGF-beta1 signaling inhibition, via a TGF-beta receptor type I inhibitor (SB-505124), resulted in decreased DFO-induced neurogenesis, in conjunction with decreased p27(kip1) protein expression and smad3 translocation to the nucleus. These results suggest that cell cycle arrest during G1/S-phase induces TGF-beta1 expression. This, in turn, prompts enhanced neuronal differentiation via smad3 translocation to the nucleus and subsequent p27(kip1) activation in NPCs.
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ABSTRACT: Activin A is a protein that participates principally in reproductive functions. In the adult brain, Activin is neuroprotective, but its role in brain development is still elusive. We studied if Activin A influences proliferation, differentiation or survival in rat cerebrocortical neural progenitor cells (NPC). After stimulation of NPC with Activin A, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad 2/3 were induced. In proliferating NPC, Activin produced a significant decrease in cell area and also a discrete increase in the number of neurons in the presence of the mitogen Fibroblast Growth Factor 2. The percentages of cells incorporating BrdU, or positive for the undifferentiated NPC markers Nestin and Sox2, were unchanged after incubation with Activin. In differentiating conditions, continuous treatment with Activin A significantly increased the number of neurons without affecting astroglial differentiation or causing apoptotic death. In cells cultured by extended periods, Activin treatment produced further increases in the proportion of neurons, excluding premature cell cycle exit. In clonal assays, Activin significantly increased neuronal numbers per colony, supporting an instructive role. Activin-induced neurogenesis was dependent on activation of its receptors, since incubation with the type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 or the ligand-trap Follistatin prevented neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, SB431542 or Follistatin by themselves abolished neurogenesis and increased astrogliogenesis, to a similar extent to that induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)4. Co-incubation of these Activin inhibitors with the BMP antagonist Dorsomorphin restored neuronal and astrocytic differentiation to control levels. Our results show an instructive neuronal effect of Activin A in cortical NPC in vitro, pointing out to a relevant role of this cytokine in the specification of NPC towards a neuronal phenotype.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43797. · 4.09 Impact Factor