Comparison of drug transporter gene expression and functionality in Caco-2 cells from 10 different laboratories.
ABSTRACT Caco-2 cells, widely used to study carrier mediated uptake and efflux mechanisms, are known to have different properties when cultured under different conditions. In this study, Caco-2 cells from 10 different laboratories were compared in terms of mRNA expression levels of 72 drug and nutrient transporters, and 17 other target genes, including drug metabolising enzymes, using real-time PCR. The rank order of the top five expressed genes was: HPT1>GLUT3>GLUT5>GST1A>OATP-B. Rank correlation showed that for most of the samples, the gene ranking was not significantly different. Functionality of transporters and the permeability of passive transport markers metoprolol (transcellular) and atenolol (paracellular) were also compared. MDR1 and PepT1 function was investigated using talinolol and Gly-Sar transport, respectively. Sulfobromophthalein (BSP) was used as a marker for MRP2 and OATP-B functionality. Atenolol permeability was more variable across laboratories than metoprolol permeability. Talinolol efflux was observed by all the laboratories, whereas only five laboratories observed significant apical uptake of Gly-Sar. Three laboratories observed significant efflux of BSP. MDR1 expression significantly correlated to the efflux ratio and net active efflux of talinolol. PepT1 mRNA levels showed significant correlation to the uptake ratio and net active uptake of Gly-Sar. MRP2 and OATP-B showed no correlation to BSP transport parameters. Heterogeneity in transporter activity may thus be due to differences in transporter expression as shown for PepT1 and MDR1 which in turn is determined by the culture conditions. Absolute expression of genes was variable indicating that small differences in culture conditions have a significant impact on gene expression, although the overall expression patterns were similar.
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ABSTRACT: Sucrose fatty acid esters are increasingly used as excipients in pharmaceutical products, but few data are available on their toxicity profile, mode of action, and efficacy on intestinal epithelial models. Three water-soluble sucrose esters, palmitate (P-1695), myristate (M-1695), laurate (D-1216), and two reference absorption enhancers, Tween 80 and Cremophor RH40, were tested on Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 monolayers formed a good barrier as reflected by high transepithelial resistance and positive immunostaining for junctional proteins claudin-1, ZO-1, and β-catenin. Sucrose esters in nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced resistance and impedance, and increased permeability for atenolol, fluorescein, vinblastine, and rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 monolayers. No visible opening of the tight junctions was induced by sucrose esters assessed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, but some alterations were seen in the structure of filamentous actin microfilaments. Sucrose esters fluidized the plasma membrane and enhanced the accumulation of efflux transporter ligands rhodamine 123 and calcein AM in epithelial cells, but did not inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated calcein AM accumulation in MES-SA/Dx5 cell line. These data indicate that in addition to their dissolution-increasing properties sucrose esters can enhance drug permeability through both the transcellular and paracellular routes without inhibiting P-gp. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm SciJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2014; 103(10). DOI:10.1002/jps.24085 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oral absorption depends on many physiological, physiochemical and formulation factors. Two important properties that govern oral absorption are in vitro permeability and solubility, which are commonly used as indicators of human intestinal absorption. Despite this, the nature and exact characteristics of the relationship between these parameters are not well understood. In this study a large dataset of human intestinal absorption was collated along with in vitro permeability, aqueous solubility, melting point, and maximum dose for the same compounds. The dataset allowed a permeability threshold to be established objectively to predict high or low intestinal absorption. Using this permeability threshold, classification decision trees incorporating a solubility-related parameter such as experimental or predicted solubility, or the melting point based absorption potential (MPbAP), along with structural molecular descriptors were developed and validated to predict oral absorption class. The decision trees were able to determine the individual roles of permeability and solubility in oral absorption process. Poorly permeable compounds with high solubility show low intestinal absorption, whereas poorly water soluble compounds with high or low permeability may have high intestinal absorption provided that they have certain molecular characteristics such as a small polar surface or specific topology.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2014; 90. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.12.006 · 3.43 Impact Factor