Comparison of drug transporter gene expression and functionality in Caco-2 cells from 10 different laboratories.
ABSTRACT Caco-2 cells, widely used to study carrier mediated uptake and efflux mechanisms, are known to have different properties when cultured under different conditions. In this study, Caco-2 cells from 10 different laboratories were compared in terms of mRNA expression levels of 72 drug and nutrient transporters, and 17 other target genes, including drug metabolising enzymes, using real-time PCR. The rank order of the top five expressed genes was: HPT1>GLUT3>GLUT5>GST1A>OATP-B. Rank correlation showed that for most of the samples, the gene ranking was not significantly different. Functionality of transporters and the permeability of passive transport markers metoprolol (transcellular) and atenolol (paracellular) were also compared. MDR1 and PepT1 function was investigated using talinolol and Gly-Sar transport, respectively. Sulfobromophthalein (BSP) was used as a marker for MRP2 and OATP-B functionality. Atenolol permeability was more variable across laboratories than metoprolol permeability. Talinolol efflux was observed by all the laboratories, whereas only five laboratories observed significant apical uptake of Gly-Sar. Three laboratories observed significant efflux of BSP. MDR1 expression significantly correlated to the efflux ratio and net active efflux of talinolol. PepT1 mRNA levels showed significant correlation to the uptake ratio and net active uptake of Gly-Sar. MRP2 and OATP-B showed no correlation to BSP transport parameters. Heterogeneity in transporter activity may thus be due to differences in transporter expression as shown for PepT1 and MDR1 which in turn is determined by the culture conditions. Absolute expression of genes was variable indicating that small differences in culture conditions have a significant impact on gene expression, although the overall expression patterns were similar.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the role of membrane-associated drug transporters in regulating the intestinal absorption of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor, atazanavir, and assess the potential contribution of these transporters in clinical interactions of atazanavir with other protease inhibitors and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). METHODS: Intestinal permeability of atazanavir was investigated in vitro, using the Caco-2 cell line system grown on Transwell inserts, and in situ, by single-pass perfusion of rat intestinal segments, jejunum and ileum, in the absence or presence of standard transporter inhibitors or antiretroviral drugs. RESULTS: Atazanavir accumulation by Caco-2 cells was susceptible to inhibition by P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family inhibitors and several antiretroviral drugs (protease inhibitors, TDF). The secretory flux of atazanavir (basolateral-to-apical P(app)) was 11.7-fold higher than its absorptive flux. This efflux ratio was reduced to 1.5-1.7 in the presence of P-glycoprotein inhibitors or ritonavir. P-glycoprotein inhibition also resulted in 1.5-2.5-fold increase in atazanavir absorption in situ. Co-administration of TDF, however, reduced atazanavir intestinal permeability by 13-49%, similar to the effect observed clinically. CONCLUSIONS: Drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein and OATPs regulate intestinal permeability of atazanavir and may contribute to its poor oral bioavailability and drug-drug interactions with other protease inhibitors and TDF.Pharmaceutical Research 12/2012; · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies and animal models have shown that pharmacoresistant epilepsy is partly due to the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters at the brain. The purposes of the study were to investigate the function and expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) in the brain of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats, and the effect of the altered Mrp2 function and expression on phenytoin (PHT) distribution in the brain. Kindled rats were developed by sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (33mg/kg, every day, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) for 28days. Mrp2 expression and function were measured by western blot and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) distribution in the brain. PHT concentrations in the brain of PTZ-kindled rats were measured alone or with co-administration of probenecid (50mg/kg). Further experiment was designed to investigate whether PHT treatment prevented the up-regulated brain Mrp2 expression and function induced by PTZ-kindling. The results showed that PTZ-kindling resulted in an increase of Mrp2 level in the hippocampus and cortex of rats, accompanied by significant decreases in the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of BSP. PTZ-kindling also decreased PHT levels in the hippocampus and cortex without altering PHT concentrations in plasma, resulting in a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of PHT. Co-administration of probenecid increased the brain-to-plasma ratio of BSP and PHT in the brain of both normal and PTZ-kindled rats. A 14-day PHT treatment prevented the up-regulation of Mrp2 expression and function induced by PTZ-kindling, accompanied by increases of PHT concentrations in the brain and good anticonvulsive effects. The present study demonstrated that chronic PTZ-kindling increased Mrp2 expression and function in the rat brain, and the up-regulation partly came from epileptic seizure.Neuroscience 10/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a growing need for highly accurate in silico and in vitro predictive models to facilitate drug discovery and development. Results from in vitro permeation studies across the Caco-2 cell monolayer are commonly used for drug permeability screening in industry and are also accepted as a surrogate for human intestinal permeability measurements by the US FDA to support new drug applications. Countless studies carried out in this cell line with published permeability measurements have enabled the development of many in silico prediction models. We identify several common cases that illustrate how using Caco-2 permeability measurements in these in silico and in vitro predictive models will not correlate with human intestinal permeability and will further lead to inaccuracies in these models. We provide guidelines and recommendations for improving these models to more accurately predict clinically relevant information, thereby enhancing the drug discovery, development, and regulatory approval processes.The AAPS Journal 01/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor