Article

Quantitative Motor Activity Differentiates Schizophrenia Subtypes

University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Neuropsychobiology (Impact Factor: 2.3). 01/2009; 60(2):80-86. DOI: 10.1159/000236448
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Motor symptoms are frequent in schizophrenia and relevant to the diagnosis of subtypes. However, the assessment has been limited to observations recorded in scales and experimental designs. The aim of this study was to use wrist actigraphy to obtain motor activity data in 3 schizophrenia subtypes. Methods: In total, 60 patients with schizophrenia (35 paranoid, 12 catatonic, 13 disorganized) were investigated using continuous wrist actigraphy over 24 h in an inpatient setting on average 38 days after admission. Data of the wakeful hours of the day were analyzed. Results: The activity level was predicted by schizophrenia subtype and by the type of antipsychotic medication. The movement index and mean duration of uninterrupted immobility were found to be predicted only by the schizophrenia subtype. Age, gender, duration of illness and chlorpromazine equivalents did not contribute to the variance of the activity data. A MANOVA demonstrated the significant differences in the 3 parameters between schizophrenia subtypes (p = 0.001). Patients with catatonic schizophrenia had lower activity levels, a lower movement index and a longer duration of immobility than those with paranoid schizophrenia. Conclusions: Schizophrenia subtypes can be differentiated using objective measures of quantitative motor activity. The increased duration of immobility appears to be the special feature of catatonic schizophrenia.

Full-text

Available from: Thomas J Müller, Jun 05, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
165 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with abnormal motor behavior, particularly hypoki-nesia. The course of the illness tends to deteriorate in the first years. We aimed to assess gross motor activity in patients with a first episode (n = 33) and multiple episodes (n = 115) of schizophrenia spectrum disorders using wrist actigraphy. First episode patients were younger, had higher motor activity and reduced negative symptom severity. Covarying for age, chlorpromazine equivalents, and negative symptoms, first episode patients still had higher motor activity. This was also true after excluding patients with schizophreni-form disorder from the analyses. In first episode patients, but not in patients with multiple episodes, motor activity was correlated with antipsychotic dosage. In conclusion, after controlling for variables related to disorder chronicity, patients with first episodes were still more active than patients with multiple episodes. Thus, reduced motor activity is a marker of deterioration in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 01/2015; 5:191. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00191
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurological abnormalities including a variety of subtle deficits such as discrete impairments in sensory integration, motor coordination (MOCO), and sequencing of complex motor acts are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and commonly referred to as neurological soft signs (NSS). Asperger-syndrome (AS) is characterized by sensory-motor difficulties as well. However, the question whether the two disorders share a common or a disease-specific pattern of NSS remains unresolved.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 08/2014; 5:91. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00091
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This research provides a critical consideration of the outcome measures used to assess physical activity in individuals with severe mental illness. A narrative synthesis was utilised to provide a simple juxtapose of the current research. A sensitive topic-based search strategy was conducted in order to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Fifty two studies met the inclusion criteria and 5 were identified specially as validation studies. The current research identified several methodological shortcomings. The justification and choice of outcome measure used is often weak and only five studies have validated a specific outcome measure of physical activity. Within these validation studies, the validation process often lacked a consideration of agreement between measures. Accelerometers have been most frequently used as a criterion measure, notably the RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. Objective based measures may be best placed to consider physical activity levels, although, methodological considerations for the utilization of such tools is required. Self-report questionnaires have benefits for use in this population but require further validation. Researchers and clinicians need to carefully consider what outcome measure they are using and be aware of the development, scope and purpose of that measure.
    Archives of psychiatric nursing 04/2014; 28(2):135-151. DOI:10.1016/j.apnu.2013.12.002 · 1.03 Impact Factor