Anti-heart autoantibodies in familial dilated cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT Familial aggregation is a feature of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Myocarditis, a clinically polymorphic inflammatory disease of the myocardium, is diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and may lead to DCM. Mutations in several genes encoding myocyte structural proteins are known monogenic DCM causes, but because of high etiologic and genetic heterogeneity, the gene defects identified so far account for a minority of cases. In the last decade, it has been discovered that autoimmunity plays a pivotal role in myocarditis and DCM that are thought to represent different stages of an organ-specific autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals. None of the available genetic studies in familial DCM has taken into account the autoimmune phenotype markers in the characterization of index patients and relatives, thus it is not known whether or not the described gene defects are involved in the autoimmune form of the disease. In animal models autoimmune myocarditis/DCM can be induced by viral infection, immunization with heart-specific autoantigens, or develop spontaneously in genetically predisposed strains. It may be cell or antibody-mediated; susceptibility is based upon multiple MHC and non-MHC genes. In patients, the diagnosis of autoimmune myocarditis/DCM requires exclusion of viral genome on EMB and detection of serum heart-reactive autoantibodies. They are found in index patients and relatives from about 60% of both familial and non-familial pedigrees and predict DCM development among healthy relatives. Some antibodies have functional effects on cardiac myocytes in vitro, in animal models and possibly in a DCM subset without inflammation, responsive to extracorporeal immunoadsorption. Cardiac-specific autoantibodies, which are shown to be disease-specific for myocarditis/DCM, can be used as biomarkers for identifying patients in whom, in the absence of active infection of the myocardium, immunosuppression and/or immunomodulation may be beneficial and their relatives at risk. Future studies should clarify genetic basis of human autoimmune myocarditis/DCM as well as genotype/immune phenotype correlations.
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ABSTRACT: Antibodies against cholinergic and adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors) are frequent in serum of patients with chronic heart failure. Their prevalence is associated with Chagas' disease, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and ischaemic heart disease. Among the epitopes targeted are first and second extracellular loops of the β-adrenergic (β-adrenoceptor) and M2 muscarinic receptor. β(1)-adrenoceptor autoantibodies affect radioligand binding and cardiomyocyte function similar to agonists. Corresponding rodent immunizations induce symptoms compatible with chronic heart failure that are reversible upon removal of the antibodies, transferable via the serum and abrogated by adrenergic antagonists. In DCM patients, prevalence and stimulatory efficacy of β(1)-adrenoceptor autoantibodies are correlated to the decline in cardiac function, ventricular arrhythmia and higher incidence of cardiac death. In conclusion, such autoantibodies seem to cause or promote chronic human left ventricular dysfunction by acting on their receptor targets in a drug-like fashion. However, the pharmacology of this interaction is poorly understood. It is unclear how the autoantibodies trigger changes in receptor activity and second messenger coupling and how that is related to the pathogenesis and severity of the associated diseases. Here, we summarize the available evidence regarding these issues and discuss these findings in the light of recent knowledge about the conformational activation of the human β(2)-adrenoceptor and the properties of bona fide cardiopathogenic autoantibodies derived from immune-adsorption therapy of DCM patients. These considerations might contribute to the conception of therapy regimen aimed at counteracting or neutralizing cardiopathogenic receptor autoantibodies.British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2012; 166(3):847-57. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both, innate and cell-mediated immunity contribute to prevention of chronic myocarditis and consecutively, cardiomyopathy. 4us, in resistant C57BL/6 mice myocarditis induced by Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infection is abrogated by immune-mediated mechanisms. However, susceptible A.BY/SnJ mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) due to chronic myocarditis. Cardiac auto-antibodies have been shown to play a pivotal role in the initiation and/or progression of inWammatory DCM. In order to investigate diXerences in the autoimmune response of susceptible and resistant mice to infection with CVB3, the patterns of autoantibodies reacting with heart proteins in A.BY/SnJ and C57BL/6 mice were proYled by 2-D Western blot analysis during the acute and chronic phases of myocarditis up to three months, when the pathophysiological phenotype in the susceptible mice has progressed to DCM. In the early phase of infection both mouse strains displayed similar autoantibody patterns. In contrast, at later time points compared to the resistant C57BL/6 strain susceptible A.BY/SnJ mice displayed a much stronger autoimmune response against proteins associated with cell structure, protein transport as well as primary metabolic processes such as energy production. During chronic myocarditis strong antibody responses against myosin heavy chain 6, mitochondrial and heat shock proteins were observed in A.BY/SnJ mice. Antibodies directed against alpha-enolase, serotransferrin, radixin and two processed myosin protein species accumulated late and only in A.BY/SnJ mice suXering from inWammatory DCM. Functional assignment of the target proteins of cardiac autoantibodies indicates that these might be directly involved in cardiac dysfunction.Journal of Integrated OMICS. 12/2012; 2(2):54-63.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of circulating troponin I (TNI)-autoantibodies in plasma of patients with chronic heart failure. Sera of 390 heart failure patients were tested for the presence of anti-TNI antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), including 249 (63.8% of total) patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 141 (36.2% of total) patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). A total of 72 patients (18.5% of total) were female and 318 (81.5% of total) were male. Mean patient age was 54.6 ± 11.3 years and mean follow-up time was 3.8 ± 3.2 years. TNI-autoantibodies (titer of ≥1:40) were detected in 73 out of 390 patients (18.7% of total). In TNI-autoantibody positive patients mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 27.6 ± 5.8%, compared to 25.8 ± 5.9% in TNI-autoantibody negative patients, P = 0.03. The combined end-point of death (n = 118, 30.3% of total) or heart transplantation (HTX) (n = 44, 11.3% of total) was reached in 162 patients (41.5% of total). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated superior survival (combined end-point of death or HTX) in patients with DCM versus ICM (P = 0.0198) and TNI-autoantibody positive patients versus TNI-autoantibody negative patients (P = 0.0348). Further subgroup analysis revealed a favorable outcome in TNI-positive patients with heart failure if the patients suffered from DCM (P = 0.0334), whereas TNI-autoantibody status in patients with ICM was not associated with survival (P = 0.8486). In subsequent multivariate Weibull-analysis, a positive TNI serostatus was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality in DCM patients (P = 0.0492). The presence of TNI-autoantibodies in plasma is associated with an improved survival in patients with chronic DCM, but not ICM. This might possibly indicate a prophylactic effect of TNI-autoantibodies in this subgroup of patients, encouraging further studies into possible protective effects of antibodies against certain cardiac target structures.Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 10/2010; 106(1):25-35. · 7.35 Impact Factor