12-Lipoxygenase-knockout mice are resistant to inflammatory effects of obesity induced by Western diet.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 4.51). 10/2008; 295(5):E1065-75. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.90371.2008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inflammation is a key pathological process in the progression of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism, may contribute to inflammatory damage triggered by stressors such as obesity and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that mice lacking 12-LO are protected against inflammatory-mediated damage associated with a "western" diet. To test this hypothesis, age-matched male 12-LO knockout (12-LOKO) and wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice were fed either a standard chow or western diet and assessed for several inflammatory markers. Western-fed B6 mice showed expected reductions in glucose and insulin tolerance compared with chow-fed mice. In contrast, western-fed 12-LOKO mice maintained glucose and insulin tolerance similar to chow-fed mice. Circulating proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, were increased in western B6 mice but not 12-LOKO mice, whereas the reported protective adipokine, adiponectin, was decreased only in western B6 mice. 12-LO activity was significantly elevated by western diet in islets from B6 mice. Islets from 12-LOKO mice did not show western-diet-induced islet hyperplasia or increases in caspase-3 apoptotic staining observed in western-fed B6 mice. Islets from 12-LOKO mice were also protected from reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion observed in islets from western-fed B6 mice. In visceral fat, macrophage numbers and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression were elevated in western B6 mice but not 12-LOKO mice. These data suggest that 12-LO activation plays a role in western-diet-induced damage in visceral fat and islets. Inhibiting 12-LO may provide a new therapeutic approach to prevent inflammation-mediated metabolic consequences of excess fat intake.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the deterioration of glycemic control over time is primarily caused by an inadequate mass and progressive dysfunction of β-cell, leading to the impaired insulin secretion. Here, we show that dietary supplementation of baicalein, a flavone isolated from the roots of Chinese herb Scutellaria baicalensis, improved glucose tolerance and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in high-fat diet (HFD-) induced middle-aged obese mice. Baicalein had no effect on food intake, body weight gain, circulating lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity in obese mice. Using another mouse model of type 2 diabetes generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that baicalein treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in these middle-aged obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet β-cell survival and mass. In the in vitro studies, baicalein significantly augmented GSIS and promoted viability of insulin-secreting cells and human islets cultured either in the basal medium or under chronic hyperlipidemic condition. These results demonstrate that baicalein may be a naturally occurring antidiabetic agent by directly modulating pancreatic β-cell function.
    International journal of endocrinology. 01/2014; 2014:846742.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF) diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH), similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL). Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO) mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet significantly reduces steatohepatitis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e107658. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue metabolism is a critical regulator of adiposity and whole-body energy expenditure; however, metabolic changes that occur in white adipose tissue (WAT) with obesity remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to understand the metabolic and bioenergetic changes occurring in WAT with obesity. Wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed significant increases in whole body adiposity, had significantly lower VO2, VCO2 and respiratory exchange ratios, and demonstrated worsened glucose and insulin tolerance compared with low fat-fed mice. Metabolomic analysis of WAT showed marked changes in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleotide, and energy metabolism. Tissue levels of succinate and malate were elevated, and metabolites that could enter the Krebs cycle via anaplerosis were mostly diminished in HF-fed mice, suggesting altered mitochondrial metabolism. Despite no change in basal oxygen consumption or mitochondrial DNA abundance, citrate synthase activity was decreased by more than 50% and responses to FCCP were increased in WAT from mice fed a HFD. Moreover, Pgc1a was downregulated and Cox7a1 was upregulated after 6 weeks of HFD. After 12 weeks of HFD, the abundance of several proteins in the mitochondrial respiratory chain or matrix was diminished. These changes were accompanied by increased Parkin and Pink1, decreased p62 and LC3-I, and ultrastructural changes suggestive of autophagy and mitochondrial remodeling. These studies demonstrate coordinated restructuring of metabolism and autophagy that could contribute to the hypertrophy and whitening of adipose tissue in obesity.
    American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. 06/2014;