Prolonged androgen receptor loading onto chromatin and the efficient recruitment of p160 coactivators contribute to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells
ABSTRACT Growth of most ablation-resistant prostate cancers (CaPs) is dependent on androgen receptor (AR) activity in chromatin, but cancer cells in these tumors have acquired altered AR activation. It is unclear how the aberrantly activated AR loads onto regulatory regions of AR-targeted genes. The purpose of this study was to assess the AR chromatin loading in an androgen-depleted environment.
The expression of PSA in androgen-resistant CaP cells was determined using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In order to investigate the binding of the AR to the PSA gene regulatory regions, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed in the androgen-independent cds2 cell line in the presence or absence of androgens. In addition, we examined the involvement of p160 coactivators in the chromatin loading of the AR.
It was found that constitutive activation of PSA expression was the result of sustained occupancy by the AR at the regulatory region of this gene. This stable AR loading was not blocked by the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Furthermore, androgen-resistant CaP cells highly expressed both AR and the p160 coactivators and the AR was able to recruit TIF2. Downregulation of TIF2 using short hairpin RNA disrupted the AR loading to the PSA enhancer and subsequently inhibited AR activity.
Prolonged AR localization to the regulatory regions of AR targeted genes and the recruitment of p160 coactivators are a potential mechanism leading to androgen-independent activation of the AR. Disruption of AR chromatin loading could therefore become an important therapeutic target for this disease.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The androgen receptor-transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) set for compounds that inhibited AR-TIF2 PPI formation or disrupted preexisting complexes. Eleven modulators of steroid family nuclear receptors (NRs) and 6 non-NR ligands inhibited AR-TIF2 PPI formation, and 10 disrupted preexisting complexes. The hits appear to be either AR antagonists or nonspecific inhibitors of NR activation and trafficking. Given that the LOPAC set represents such a small and restricted biological and chemical diversity, it is anticipated that screening a much larger and more diverse compound library will be required to find AR-TIF2 PPI inhibitors/disruptors. The AR-TIF2 protein-protein interaction biosensor (PPIB) approach offers significant promise for identifying molecules with potential to modulate AR transcriptional activity in a cell-specific manner that is distinct from the existing antiandrogen drugs that target AR binding or production. Small molecules that disrupt AR signaling at the level of AR-TIF2 PPIs may also overcome the development of resistance and progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer.Assay and Drug Development Technologies 09/2014; 12(7):395-418. DOI:10.1089/adt.2014.594 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel method for polychromatic pattern recognition is proposed based on color component marking and convolution-based encoding. Three random phase functions are first chosen as marks to multiply with the three color components of the input images. Then the three marked color components are combined into one image using convolution-based encoding. Finally, the combined images are served as the input images of the JTC to be recognized. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results.Optics & Laser Technology 11/2011; 43(8):1495-1498. DOI:10.1016/j.optlastec.2011.05.012 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hormonal therapies targeting androgen receptor (AR) are effective in prostate cancer (PCa), but often the cancer progress to fatal castrate-resistant disease. Improved understanding of the cellular events during androgen-deprivation would help to identify survival and stress pathways whose inhibition could synergize with androgen-deprivation. Towards this aim, we performed an RNAi screen on 2068 genes, including kinases, phosphatases, epigenetic enzymes and other druggable gene targets. High-content cell spot microarray (CSMA) screen was performed in VCaP cells in the presence and absence of androgens with detection of Ki67 and cleaved ADP-ribose polymerase (cPARP) as assays for cell proliferation and apoptosis. 39 candidate genes were identified, whose silencing inhibited proliferation or induced apoptosis of VCaP cells exclusively under androgen-deprived conditions. One of the candidates, HSPB (heat shock 27 kDa) associated protein 1 (HSPBAP1) was confirmed to be highly expressed in tumor samples and its mRNA expression levels increased with the Gleason grade. We found that strong HSPBAP1 immuno-histochemical staining (IHC) was associated with shorter disease-specific survival of PCa patients compared with negative to moderate staining. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HSPBAP1 interacts with AR in the nucleus of PCa cells specifically during androgen-deprived conditions, occupy chromatin at PSA/klk3 and TMPRSS2/tmprss2 enahncers and regulates their expression. In conclusion, we suggest that HSPBAP1 aids in sustaining cell viability by maintaining AR signaling during androgen-deprived conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 06/2015; 136(11). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29303 · 5.01 Impact Factor