Opiates, immune system, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and nonhuman primate model.

Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Journal of NeuroVirology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 09/2008; 14(4):279-85. DOI: 10.1080/13550280802078209
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and illicit drug addiction remain major health problems not only in the United States but all over globe. The effect of drug addiction on HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has been somewhat underexplored. However, in United States more than one fourth of HIV-positive individuals are injection drug users. Opiates are known to negatively affect the immune system, and therefore may have deleterious effects on progression of disease among HIV-infected individuals. This review discusses the effects of opiates on immune system as well as its effect on HIV replication and AIDS progression. In addition, the effects of opiates on disease progression in non-human primate model of AIDS is presented with at least one possible reason for rapid disease progression in multi-virus the challenge model.

Download full-text


Available from: Vanessa Rivera-Amill, Feb 18, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Six morphine-dependent and three control macaques were infected with a mixture of SIV/SHIV. Half of the animals in the morphine group developed accelerated disease (rapid progressor) and died within 20 weeks postinfection. The evolution of the envelope gene in the brain of the rapid progressor and morphine-dependent group along with that in the control group was assessed. Six to 10 clones from the brain of each macaque were sequenced and were compared against each other as well as against a challenge virus. Analysis of the sequences revealed that the diversity and divergence of the clones were higher in the control group as compared to the morphine-dependent macaques, although this difference was not statistically significant.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 05/2009; 25(5):531-4. DOI:10.1089/aid.2008.0279 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal models for HIV research have been indispensible in fulfilling Koch's postulate and in exploring issues of viral infectivity and pathogenesis, sequence divergence, route(s) of acquisition, tissue distribution and tropism, immunogenicity and protection capacity of vaccine candidates, escape from adaptive immunity, and more. Did they fail to predict the efficacy of T-cell vaccines in humans? This article summarizes progress and status of models to inform and complement clinical work.
    European Journal of Immunology 08/2009; 39(8):1994-9. DOI:10.1002/eji.200939576 · 4.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled "Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)" at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by developing mentoring programs for (1) doctoral and postdoctoral candidates and junior faculty from racial and ethnic minorities and (2) non-minority individuals at the same levels, whose research focuses on NeuroAIDS disparity issues such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This web-based interactive course overcomes the limitations of traditional education such as access to expert faculty and financial burden of scientists from racial and ethnic minority groups in the field of NeuroAIDS research and NIP and identifies rich nurturing environments for investigators to support their careers. The TR-NAMH program identifies a cadre of talented students and investigators eager to commit to innovative educational and training sessions in NeuroAIDS and NIP. The interplay between NIP changes precipitated by HIV infection in the brain makes the study of HAND an outstanding way to integrate important concepts from these two fields. The course includes activities besides those related to didactic learning such as research training and long-term mentoring; hence, the newly learned topics in NIP are continually reinforced and implemented in real-time experiences. We describe how NIP is integrated in the TR-NAMH program in the context of HAND.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 03/2011; 6(1):80-8. DOI:10.1007/s11481-010-9222-y · 3.17 Impact Factor