Opiates, immune system, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and nonhuman primate model.
ABSTRACT Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and illicit drug addiction remain major health problems not only in the United States but all over globe. The effect of drug addiction on HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has been somewhat underexplored. However, in United States more than one fourth of HIV-positive individuals are injection drug users. Opiates are known to negatively affect the immune system, and therefore may have deleterious effects on progression of disease among HIV-infected individuals. This review discusses the effects of opiates on immune system as well as its effect on HIV replication and AIDS progression. In addition, the effects of opiates on disease progression in non-human primate model of AIDS is presented with at least one possible reason for rapid disease progression in multi-virus the challenge model.
SourceAvailable from: Vahid Salimi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Opioids are frequently used during mechanical ventilation for severe viral infection in infancy. Opioid receptors have immunomodulatory properties, but nothing is known about their antiviral effects. We therefore aimed to investigate the role of opioid receptors in virus-induced airway inflammation. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS:: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in OPRM1 and OPRD1 were genotyped in 465 infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection and 930 control subjects. Subsequently, the mechanism by which opioid receptors affect clinical outcome in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis was studied in BALB/c mice. Animals were injected daily with nalmefene, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, and infected by intranasal inoculation of respiratory syncytial virus 24 hrs after the first dose of nalmefene. The potential therapeutic effect of pharmaceutical opioids was studied using µ (DAMGO), κ (U50488), and δ (DPDPE) opioid receptor agonists 48 hrs after infection. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: In our human study, the A118G single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799971 was associated with respiratory syncytial virus disease severity (p = 0.015). In mice, nalmefene treatment increased viral titers and was associated with more pronounced weight loss. Increased viral replication was associated with increased levels of cytokines and chemokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, enhanced bronchoalveolar cellular influx, and exaggerated lung pathology. Pharmaceutical opioids, in particular DPDPE, did not affect viral replication. They did induce a decreased influx of neutrophils, but an increased influx of lymphocytes and monocytes into the bronchoalveolar lumen during respiratory syncytial virus infection. CONCLUSIONS:: Using a human study and an experimental model, we show that opioid receptor signaling has a potential beneficial role in the outcome of respiratory viral disease. We show that opioid receptor signaling is required to control respiratory syncytial virus replication and thereby to control disease severity. However, we also show that caution is required before using pharmaceutical opioids as anti-inflammatory or antiviral treatment of patients with viral respiratory infection.Critical care medicine 12/2012; 41(1). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31826767a8 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein of HIV and SIV involved in the pathogenesis of viral infection. In this study, we monitored SIV evolution in the central nervous system and other organs from morphine-dependent and control animals by sequencing vpr in an attempt to understand the relationship between drug abuse, disease progression, and compartmentalization of viral evolution. Animals in the morphine group developed accelerated disease and died within twenty weeks post-infection. A unique mutation, R50G, was identified in the macaques that survived regardless of morphine exposure. Functional studies revealed that the R50G mutation exhibited altered cellular localization and decreased the expression levels of both IL-6 and IL-8. Our results, therefore, suggest that sequence changes within the SIV/17E-Fr vpr occur regardless of drug abuse but correlate with survival, and that they alter disease progression rates by affecting Vpr functions.Virology 11/2013; 446(1-2):144-51. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2013.07.027 · 3.28 Impact Factor
Dataset: 2013 CCM Salimi