Teaching NeuroImage: Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome: Sequential MRI follow-up

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029 India.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 10/2008; 71(11):e28. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000325475.04616.e3
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-aged children (FIRES), and idiopathic hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (IHHS) are both triggered by fever, although evidence for a causal microorganism or an autoimmune phenomenon is lacking. FIRES begins in school age with status epilepticus lasting several weeks, involves perisylvian areas including mesial temporal structures, and is followed by pharmacoresistant epilepsy with major cognitive deterioration. IHHS begins in infancy with unilateral clonic status epilepticus and is followed by hemiplegia with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The aetiology of FIRES and IHHS remains unknown, although clinical features and experimental models point to a likely vicious cycle involving inflammation and seizure activity that depends on the stage of brain maturation. We therefore propose to group these conditions under the concept of acute encephalopathy with inflammation-mediated status epilepticus. In addition to preliminary but encouraging clinical observations, there are theoretical reasons to consider the ketogenic diet as an early means to control both seizures and inflammation.
    The Lancet Neurology 01/2011; 10(1):99-108. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70214-3 · 21.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is an uncommon outcome of prolonged focal status epilepticus in childhood. The prolonged focal motor seizure usually occurs during the course of a febrile illness and is followed by hemiplegia ipsilateral to the side of convulsions. This is accompanied by radiologic evidence of acute cytotoxic edema in the affected hemisphere followed by chronic atrophy. Intractable epilepsy may develop at a time remote from the initial presentation. The clinical features of HHE syndrome were first described more than 5 decades ago but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood and the long-term cognitive outcomes are unclear. Early recognition of the syndrome may help provide patients and families with an accurate prognosis regarding the subsequent development of epilepsy.
    Neurology 07/2012; 79(1):e1-4. DOI:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31825dce5f · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic mutations in SCN1A account for more than two-thirds of patients with classic Dravet syndrome. A role for SCN1A genetic mutations in the development of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome was recently suggested based on the observation that HHE syndrome and classic Dravet syndrome share many clinical features. We previously identified a 2 bp-deletion mutation in SCN1A in a Dravet patient, and we found out the patient also had HHE syndrome upon clinical re-evaluation. We subsequently screened 10 additional HHE patients for SCN1A. Among the 11 patients who were diagnosed with HHE syndrome, six patients had no other etiology with the exception of prolonged febrile illness, therefore classified as idiopathic HHE syndrome, whereas five patients were classified as symptomatic HHE syndrome. Direct sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the SCN1A gene was performed, but we failed to identify additional mutations in 10 patients. The patient with SCN1A mutation had the earliest onset of febrile convulsion and hemiparesis. Our study suggests that SCN1A genetic mutation is only a rare predisposing cause of HHE syndrome.
    Epilepsy research 07/2013; 106(3). DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2013.06.012 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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