Hospitalized cardiovascular diseases in neovascular age-related macular degeneration
ABSTRACT To compare the incidence rate of hospitalized myocardial infarctions (MIs) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) in subjects with and without neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
A retrospective database cohort study was performed in subjects with neovascular AMD and controls matched for age, sex, geography, and enrollment duration. Healthcare claims for the study period from January 1, 2002, to June 30, 2005, were used to identify subjects and outcomes. Incidence of hospitalized MI and CVA events and rate ratios adjusted for 11 risk factors were calculated.
In 7203 subjects with neovascular AMD and 20,208 controls, the rate of MI was 16.2 events per 1000 subjects with neovascular AMD and 23.1 events per 1000 controls. The adjusted rate ratio for MI was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.72; P < .001) for subjects with neovascular AMD vs controls. The rate of CVA was 14.3 events per 1000 subjects with neovascular AMD and 22.1 events per 1000 controls. The adjusted rate ratio for CVA was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.70; P < .001).
Rates of MI or CVA were significantly lower in subjects with neovascular AMD than in controls. These findings could not be explained by systematic differences in case selection, health care use, or comorbidities, although other possible biases cannot be ruled out.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Anti-VEGF therapy improved the quality of life for millions of patients suffering from wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD); unfortunately, this therapy involves multiple injections over many years. The administration of anti-VEGF can overcome the blood-retinal barrier with agents entering the systemic circulation and causing a significant decrease in VEGF serum concentration. Although circulating VEGF protects the integrity and patency of vessels, prolonged anti-VEGF treatment has the potential to increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the safety data from recent trials involving available anti-VEGF drugs. Expert opinion: During the 2 years of follow-up in the relevant clinical trials, the rates of serious adverse events such as stroke, heart attack and death were similar for patients treated with different anti-VEGF drugs. Moreover the arterial thrombotic risk appears sufficiently low when compared with the natural incidence of arterial thrombotic events in this category of elderly patients and acceptably balanced against the advantage of improved vision. Since the use of these drugs is likely to become increasingly widespread and prolonged, it is desirable that the scientific community improves the pharmacovigilance program on all anti-VEGF drugs, expanding knowledge with studies that compares head to head all four compounds belonging to anti-VEGF armamentarium.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 05/2014; 13(6). DOI:10.1517/14740338.2014.911284 · 2.74 Impact Factor
Article: Retinale Licht-Schäden
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ABSTRACT: Research has indicated some shared pathogenic mechanisms between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, results from prior epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent as to whether AMD is predictive of future CVD risk. To systematically review population-based cohort studies of the association between AMD and risk of total CVD and CVD subtypes, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. A systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases and reference lists of key retrieved articles up to December 20, 2012 without language restriction. Two reviewers independently extracted data on baseline AMD status, risk estimates of CVD and methods used to assess AMD and CVD. We pooled relative risks using random or fixed effects models as appropriate. Thirteen cohort studies (8 prospective and 5 retrospective studies) with a total of 1,593,390 participants with 155,500 CVD events (92,039 stroke and 62,737 CHD) were included in this meta-analysis. Among all studies, early AMD was associated with a 15% (95% CI, 1.08-1.22) increased risk of total CVD. The relative risk was similar but not significant for late AMD (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.98-1.40). In analyses restricted to the subset of prospective studies, the risk associated with early AMD did not appreciably change; however, there was a marked 66% (95% CI, 1.31-2.10) increased risk of CVD among those with late AMD. Whereas the results from all cohort studies suggest that both early and late AMD are predictive of a small increase in risk of future CVD, subgroup analyses limited to prospective studies demonstrate a markedly increased risk of CVD among people with late AMD. Retrospective studies using healthcare databases may have inherent methodological limitations that obscure such association. Additional prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the associations between AMD and specific CVD outcomes.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e89600. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089600 · 3.53 Impact Factor