distinguishes between vocal cues that impart meaning to the verbal message, those that regulate the flow of verbal interaction between the participants, and those that are expressive of the speaker's background, his or her affective states, his or her attitudes and feelings toward the person being addressed, and of speech production and information processing / it is this third category of vocal cues with which the chapter is most concerned
the second part is an historical and critical review of "personality and speech" research
the third part of the chapter deals extensively with the effects of anxiety, and . . . with the effects of depression, anger, and hostility, on some vocal parameters of speech
the fourth part summarizes studies about how the relationship between two or more communicants is expressed in the vocal channel
in the fifth and last part, Siegman cites numerous studies that demonstrate that most . . . of the vocal indices . . . that have been identified as vocal correlates of affective experiences, are also affected by speech production and other cognitive processes (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"As cleanliness is an indicator of purity, such signals could be a systematic indicator of villains violating the ''purity'' domain and heroes upholding it. Villains are often characterized with an accent (Siegman, 1987), illustrating a violation of the ingroup domain, whereas heroes are often portrayed as stereotypical ''everymen,'' thus upholding ingroup concerns. Heroes are often cops, lawmakers , or sheriffs, who by their nature uphold the authority domain, whereas villains are lawbreakers, anarchists, or terrorists, thereby violating it. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates disposition-formation processes in entertainment by predicting perceptions of media heroes and villains by their behavior in specific moral domains. Participants rated self-selected heroes and villains from television and film along the moral domains of care, fairness, loyalty, authority, and purity (Haidt & Joseph, 20079.
Haidt , J. , &
Joseph , C. ( 2007 ). The moral mind: How 5 sets of innate moral intuitions guide the development of many culture-specific virtues, and perhaps even modules. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence & S. Stich (Eds.), The Innate Mind (Vol. 3, pp. 367–391). New York: Oxford. View all references) as well as along dimensions of of warmth, competence, and duplicity used in impression-formation research (Fiske et al., 20024.
Fiske , S. T. ,
Cuddy , A. J. C. ,
Glick , P. , &
Xu , J. ( 2002 ). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 82 ( 6 ), 878 – 902 . doi: 10.1037//0022–35184.108.40.2068 [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references). Results show that heroes violate moral norms in domains of authority and purity, whereas villains violated moral norms in the domains of caring and group loyalty. Furthermore, these moral violations are associated with personality dimensions of warmth and competence differently for each character type; such that impressions of heroes are driven by their work in the care domain (i.e., saving or protecting people) whereas for villains, violation of purity norms is most strongly associated with subsequent impression formation processes.
Mass Communication & Society 06/2014; 18(2):140613142702006. DOI:10.1080/15205436.2014.923462 · 0.83 Impact Factor
"person perception and information processing, we take a closer look at how (undesirable) voice characteristics have an impact in interpersonal communication situations (Knapp et al., 2013; Siegman, 1987; Zuckerman & Driver, 1989; Zuckerman & Miyake, 1993). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Against the backdrop of cognitive load theory (CLT) it was tested if irregular voice increases processing demands on working memory (WM). An experiment was designed to expose N = 54 participants to expository text delivered with a modal and a creaky human voice. Working memory capacity was measured by a secondary task on the visual modality. Listening to a creaky voice quality consumes more cognitive capacity as indicated by the significant decrease in secondary task performance; also, retention of information was found to be impaired. Results are explained within the framework of CLT and implications for professional communication are discussed.
Studies in Communication Sciences 04/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1016/j.scoms.2014.03.011
"In addition to smile controls, which involve multiple facial actions, we assessed interracial discomfort using content-free speech coding (Dabbs & Ruback, 1984, 1987). The relationship between speech latency (pauses) and anxiety is well documented, with longer speech latency being linked to state anxiety (Harrigan, Wilson, & Rosenthal, 2004; Siegman, 1987). Research and theory suggest that speech disfluencies and interruptions may be a defining characteristic of intergroup exchanges (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003; Vorauer, 2006; Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Discomfort during interracial interactions is common among Whites in the U.S. and is linked to avoidance of interracial encounters. While the negative consequences of interracial discomfort are well-documented, understanding of its causes is still incomplete. Alcohol consumption has been shown to decrease negative emotions caused by self-presentational concern but increase negative emotions associated with racial prejudice. Using novel behavioral-expressive measures of emotion, we examined the impact of alcohol on displays of discomfort among 92 White individuals interacting in all-White or interracial groups. We used the Facial Action Coding System and comprehensive content-free speech analyses to examine affective and behavioral dynamics during these 36-min exchanges (7.9 million frames of video data). Among Whites consuming nonalcoholic beverages, those assigned to interracial groups evidenced more facial and speech displays of discomfort than those in all-White groups. In contrast, among intoxicated Whites there were no differences in displays of discomfort between interracial and all-White groups. Results highlight the central role of self-presentational concerns in interracial discomfort and offer new directions for applying theory and methods from emotion science to the examination of intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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