The regulation of glycine transporter GLYT1 is mainly mediated by protein kinase Calpha in C6 glioma cells.
ABSTRACT Glycine has been shown to possess important functions as a bidirectional neurotransmitter. At synaptic clefts, the concentration of glycine is tightly regulated by the uptake of glycine released from nerve terminals into glial cells by the transporter GLYT1. It has been recently demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) mediates the downregulation of GLYT1 activity in several cell systems. However, it remains to be elucidated which subtypes of PKC might be important in the regulation of GLYT1 activity. In this study, we attempted to make clear the mechanism of the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-suppressed uptake of glycine in C6 glioma cells which have the native expression of GLYT1. In C6 cells, the expression of PKCalpha, PKCdelta, and PKCvarepsilon of the PMA-activated subtypes was detected. The PMA-suppressed action was fully reversed by the removal of both extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of PMA or thymeleatoxin (THX), which is a selective activator of conventional PKC (cPKC), were blocked by the downregulation of all PKCs expressed in C6 cells by long-term incubation with THX, or pretreatment with GF109203X or Gö6983, which are broad inhibitors of PKC, or Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of cPKC. On the other hand, treatment of C6 cells with ingenol, a selective activator of novel PKCs, especially PKCdelta and PKCvarepsilon, did not affect the transport of glycine. Silencing of PKCdelta expression by using RNA interference or pretreatment with the inhibitor peptide for PKCvarepsilon had no effect on the PMA-suppressed uptake of glycine. Together, these results suggest PKCalpha to be a crucial factor in the regulation of glycine transport in C6 cells.
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ABSTRACT: The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance rate for glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the years, it has been shown that PKC tightly regulates the activity of several neurotransmitter transporters. In the present work, by stably expressing three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms in porcine aortic endothelial cells and assaying for [(32)P]-orthophosphate metabolic labeling, we demonstrated that the isoforms GlyT1a, GlyT1b, and GlyT1c were constitutively phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation was dramatically enhanced, in a time dependent fashion, after PKC activation by phorbol ester. The phosphorylation was PKC-dependent, since pre-incubation of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation. Blotting with specific anti-phospho-tyrosine antibodies did not yield any signal that could correspond to GlyT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at serine and/or threonine residues. In addition, a 23-40%-inhibition on V(max) was obtained by incubation with phorbol ester without a significant change on the apparent Km value. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with the selective PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the downregulation effect of phorbol ester on uptake and phosphorylation, whereas the selective PKCβ inhibitors (PKCβ inhibitor or LY333531) prevented the phosphorylation without affecting glycine uptake, defining a specific role of classical PKC on GlyT1 uptake and phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that conventional PKCα/β regulates the uptake of glycine, whereas PKCβ is responsible for GlyT1 phosphorylation.Neurochemistry International 08/2011; 59(8):1123-32. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2011.08.006
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ABSTRACT: We studied the amino acid and lipid dynamics during embryogenesis of Homarus gammarus. Major essential amino acids (EAA) in the last stage of embryonic development were arginine, lysine and leucine; major nonessential amino acids (NEAA) were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, valine and glycine. The highest percent of utilization occurred in respect to EAA (27.8%), mainly due to a significant decrease (p<0.05) of methionine (38.3%) and threonine (36.0%). NEAA also decreased significantly (p<0.05, 11.4%), namely serine (38.1%), tyrosine (26.4%) and glutamic acid (25.7%). In contrast, the free amino acid content increased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development, especially the free nonessential amino acids (FNEAA). In the last stage, the most abundant FNEAA were glycine, proline, alanine and taurine, and the major free essential amino acids (FEAA) were arginine, lysine and leucine. Lipid content decreased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development. A substantial decrease in all neutral lipid classes was observed (>80% of utilization). Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Unsaturated (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at similar rates (76.5% and 76.3%, respectively). Within UFA, monounsaturates (MUFA) were consumed more than polyunsaturates (PUFA) (82.9% and 67.5%, respectively).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 02/2005; 140(2):241-9. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.10.009
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ABSTRACT: The glycine transporter GLYT1 regulates both glycinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission by controlling the reuptake of glycine at synapses. Trafficking of GLYT1 to and from the cell surface is critical for its function. Activation of PKC down-regulates the activity of GLYT1 through a mechanism that has so far remained uncharacterized. Here we show that GLYT1b undergoes fast constitutive endocytosis that is accelerated by phorbol esters. Both constitutive and regulated endocytosis occur through a dynamin 2- and clathrin-dependent pathway, accumulating in the transporter in transferrin-containing endosomes. A chimera with the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the nerve growth factor receptor and the COOH-terminal tail of GLYT1 was efficiently internalized through this clathrin pathway, suggesting the presence of molecular determinants for GLYT1b endocytosis in its COOH-terminal tail. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis in this region of the chimera highlighted the involvement of lysine residues in its internalization. In the context of the full-length transporter, lysine 619 played a prominent role in both the constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced endocytosis of GLYT1b, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin modification of GLYT1b during the internalization process. Indeed, we show that GLYT1b undergoes ubiquitination and that this process is stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In addition, this endocytosis is impaired in an ubiquitination-deficient cell line, further evidence that constitutive and regulated endocytosis of GLYT1b is ubiquitin-dependent. It remains to be determined whether GLYT1b recycling might be affected in pathologies involving alterations to the ubiquitin system, thereby interfering with its influence on inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2009; 284(29):19482-92. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.005165