The regulation of glycine transporter GLYT1 is mainly mediated by protein kinase Calpha in C6 glioma cells.
ABSTRACT Glycine has been shown to possess important functions as a bidirectional neurotransmitter. At synaptic clefts, the concentration of glycine is tightly regulated by the uptake of glycine released from nerve terminals into glial cells by the transporter GLYT1. It has been recently demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) mediates the downregulation of GLYT1 activity in several cell systems. However, it remains to be elucidated which subtypes of PKC might be important in the regulation of GLYT1 activity. In this study, we attempted to make clear the mechanism of the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-suppressed uptake of glycine in C6 glioma cells which have the native expression of GLYT1. In C6 cells, the expression of PKCalpha, PKCdelta, and PKCvarepsilon of the PMA-activated subtypes was detected. The PMA-suppressed action was fully reversed by the removal of both extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of PMA or thymeleatoxin (THX), which is a selective activator of conventional PKC (cPKC), were blocked by the downregulation of all PKCs expressed in C6 cells by long-term incubation with THX, or pretreatment with GF109203X or Gö6983, which are broad inhibitors of PKC, or Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of cPKC. On the other hand, treatment of C6 cells with ingenol, a selective activator of novel PKCs, especially PKCdelta and PKCvarepsilon, did not affect the transport of glycine. Silencing of PKCdelta expression by using RNA interference or pretreatment with the inhibitor peptide for PKCvarepsilon had no effect on the PMA-suppressed uptake of glycine. Together, these results suggest PKCalpha to be a crucial factor in the regulation of glycine transport in C6 cells.
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ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that glycine transporters of the GLYT1 type are situated on astrocytes whereas GLYT2 are present on glycinergic neuronal terminals where they mediate glycine uptake. We here used purified preparations of mouse spinal cord nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and of astrocyte-derived subcellular particles (gliosomes) to characterize functionally and morphologically the glial versus neuronal distribution of GLYT1 and GLYT2. Both gliosomes and synaptosomes accumulated [3H]GABA through GAT1 transporters and, when exposed to glycine in superfusion conditions, they released the radioactive amino acid not in a receptor-dependent manner, but as a consequence of glycine penetration through selective transporters. The glycine-evoked release of [3H]GABA was exocytotic from synaptosomes but GAT1 carrier-mediated from gliosomes. Based on the sensitivity of the glycine effects to selective GLYT1 and GLYT2 blockers, the two transporters contributed equally to evoke [3H]GABA release from GABAergic synaptosomes; even more surprising, the 'neuronal' GLYT2 contributed more efficiently than the 'glial' GLYT1 to mediate the glycine effect in [3H]GABA releasing gliosomes. These functional results were largely confirmed by confocal microscopy analysis showing co-expression of GAT1 and GLYT2 in GFAP-positive gliosomes and of GAT1 and GLYT1 in MAP2-positive synaptosomes. To conclude, functional GLYT1 are present on neuronal axon terminals and functional GLYT2 are expressed on astrocytes, indicating not complete selectivity of glycine transporters in their glial versus neuronal localization in the spinal cord.Neurochemistry International 02/2008; 52(1-2):103-12. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The protein kinase C (PKC) family consists of at least 12 isoforms that possess distinct differences in structure, substrate requirement, expression and localization. To date, identification of the physiological function of individual PKC isoforms has been restricted by the availability of few agents that inhibit or activate the isoforms with specificity. More recent approaches that are used to modulate PKC isoforms include oligonucleotide antisense technology, and peptide fragments to either inhibit or promote translocation of PKC isoforms to specific anchoring proteins. In this review, several currently available inhibitors and activators of PKC that display varying degrees of selectivity for the PKC isoforms will be discussed.Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 06/2000; 21(5):181-7. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters are rapidly (within minutes) regulated by protein kinase C (PKC), with changes in activity being correlated with changes in transporter trafficking to or from the plasma membrane. Our recent studies suggest that one of the classical subtypes of PKC, PKCalpha, may selectively mediate redistribution of the neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier (EAAC)1, and show that PKCalpha can be co-immunoprecipitated with EAAC1. When the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1a is transfected into C6 glioma cells, this transporter is internalized in response to activation of PKC, but the PKC subtype involved in this regulation is unknown. In the present study, expression of the phorbol ester-activated subtypes of PKC was examined in C6 glioma transfected with GLT-1. Of the classical subtypes, only PKCalpha was detected, and of the non-classical subtypes, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon were detected. In this system, phorbol ester-dependent internalization of GLT-1 was blocked by a general inhibitor of PKCs (bisindolylmaleimide II) and by concentrations of Gö6976 that selectively block classical PKCs, but not by an inhibitor of PKCdelta (rottlerin). PKCalpha immunoreactivity was found in GLT-1 immunoprecipitates obtained from transfected C6 cells and from crude rat brain synaptosomes, a milieu that better mimics in vivo conditions. The amount of PKCalpha in both types of immunoprecipitate was modestly increased by phorbol ester, and this increase was blocked by a PKC antagonist. These studies suggest that PKCalpha may be required for the regulated redistribution of GLT-1.Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2005; 94(5):1180-8. · 3.97 Impact Factor