Economic theory and evidence on smoking behavior of adults.
ABSTRACT To describe: (i) three alternative conceptual frameworks used by economists to study addictive behaviors: rational, imperfectly rational and irrational addiction; (ii) empirical economic evidence on each framework and specific channels to explain adult smoking matched to the frameworks; and (iii) policy implications for each framework.
A systematic review and appraisal of important theoretical and empirical economic studies on smoking.
There is some empirical support for each framework. For rational and imperfectly rational addiction there is some evidence that anticipated future cigarette prices influence current cigarette consumption, and quitting costs are high for smokers. Smokers are more risk-tolerant in the financial domain than are others and tend to attach a lower value to being in good health. Findings on differences in rates of time preference by smoking status are mixed; however, short-term rates are higher than long-term rates for both smokers and non-smokers, a stylized fact consistent with hyperbolic discounting. The economic literature lends no empirical support to the view that mature adults smoke because they underestimate the probability of harm to health from smoking. In support of the irrationality framework, smokers tend to be more impulsive than others in domains not related directly to smoking, implying that they may be sensitive to cues that trigger smoking.
Much promising economic research uses the imperfectly rational addiction framework, but empirical research based on this framework is still in its infancy.
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ABSTRACT: Behavioral economics is an emerging cross-disciplinary field that is providing an exciting new contextual framework for researchers to study addictive processes. New initiatives to study addiction under a behavioral economic rubric have yielded variable terminology and differing methods and theoretical approaches that are consistent with the multidimensional nature of addiction. The present article is intended to provide an integrative overview of the behavioral economic nomenclature and to describe relevant theoretical models, principles and concepts. Additionally, we present measures derived from behavioral economic theories that quantify demand for substances and assess decision making processes surrounding substance use. The sensitivity of these measures to different contextual elements (e.g., drug use status, acute drug effects, deprivation) is also addressed. The review concludes with discussion of the validity of these approaches and their potential for clinical application and highlights areas that warrant further research. Overall, behavioral economics offers a compelling framework to help explicate complex addictive processes and it is likely to provide a translational platform for clinical intervention.Current Drug Abuse Reviews 10/2012;
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ABSTRACT: Persons with severe and persistent mental illnesses, e.g. schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, smoke at a much higher rate than the general population. Treatment options for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder often include the first-generation (typical) and second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics, which have been shown to be effective in treating both psychotic and mood symptoms. This article reviews studies examining the relationship between antipsychotic medication and cigarette smoking. These studies suggest that in persons with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, typical antipsychotics may increase basal smoking and decrease people's ability to stop smoking, whereas atypical antipsychotics decrease basal smoking and promote smoking cessation. However, we found that the data available were generally of moderate quality and from small studies, and that there were conflicting findings. The review also critically assesses a number of potential mechanisms for this effect: the use of smoking as a form of self-medication for the side effects of antipsychotics, the effect of antipsychotics on smoking-related cues and the effect of antipsychotics on the appreciation of the economic cost of smoking behaviour. Gaps in the research are noted and recommendations for further study are included. More study of this important issue is needed to clarify the effect of antipsychotics on smoking behaviours.CNS Drugs 04/2011; 25(4):299-315. · 4.80 Impact Factor