Benefits of early hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns and infants
ABSTRACT Despite the availability of safe and effective hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines for >20 years, strategies targeting risk groups failed to sufficiently control hepatitis B disease at the population level; this is mainly because of difficulties in risk identification and in program implementation. Hence, the global burden of disease of HBV still is substantial. The World Health Organization recommends universal vaccination against hepatitis B to ultimately eliminate HBV; this recommendation had been progressively implemented to reach 168 countries with a universal program by the end of 2006. However, hepatitis B immunization is currently becoming endangered of losing its place on the agendas of governments, agencies, and international organizations, mainly because of the increasing success of these immunization programs and the interest in newer vaccine-preventable diseases and the related programs.This publication aims to show that vaccination programs targeting newborns and infants are preferable to achieve this goal. The benefits of universal HBV vaccination for newborns and infants are: higher impact on chronic carrier rate and transmission; established potential of high vaccine coverage in this age group; opportunities to combine HBV vaccination with existing universal vaccination programs for newborns and infants; and impact on perinatal transmission, if vaccination is started shortly after birth. Moreover, the safety, immunogenicity, and long-term efficacy of newborn and infant HBV vaccination have been proven extensively. In summary, newborn and infant HBV vaccination programs should be considered the preferred strategy, capable of providing important and sustained impact on global HBV incidence, even if they have a delayed impact on sexual transmission of HBV.
Conference Paper: Visual Navigation System for a Mobile RobotIntelligent Robots and Systems '89. The Autonomous Mobile Robots and Its Applications. IROS '89. Proceedings., IEEE/RSJ International Workshop on; 10/1989
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ABSTRACT: As hepatitis B and C share modes of transmission, their combined occurrence is not uncommon, particularly in areas where both viruses are endemic and in individuals at high-risk of parenteral infection. Both viral hepatitis infections form an important global public health problem, responsible for over half a billion chronic infections worldwide. Their distinctive characteristics impact upon their epidemiology, transmission, and the success of the different prevention strategies. Since several decades a safe and effective vaccine has been available to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Universal vaccination is the cornerstone of global HBV control. Despite major success, vaccine uptake is hampered, and increasing efforts are required to eliminate acute and chronic hepatitis B. Unlike hepatitis C and HIV, HBV has not captured sufficient attention from policymakers, advocacy groups, or the general public: a major challenge for the future. Although progress has been made in the development of an hepatitis C vaccine, short-term successes are not expected. Even without a vaccine, successes can be reported in the field of hepatitis C due to e.g. implementation of universal precautionary measures in health-care settings, screening of blood and blood products, and identification and counselling of infected people. Despite important efforts, transmission in injecting drug users is increasing.Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 02/2008; 22(6):1009-29. DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2008.11.008 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combination vaccines that include multiple antigens within one formulation are now widely accepted as an effective means of eliciting protection against several diseases at the same time. Owing to improvements in quality and convenient modes of administration, they have become part of routine pediatric practice. Hexavalent vaccines, including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens represent the latest advance in the development of combination vaccines. Over 8 years since its first licensure, this review looks at the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety profile of the only hexavalent pediatric vaccine currently in use--Infanrix hexa (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertusis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated poliovirus vaccine/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine [DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib]; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium)--through published clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance data. These data show DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib to be highly immunogenic and well tolerated across a range of different primary and booster vaccination schedules, as well as when administered concomitantly with other licensed vaccines (e.g., pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). Additional issues surrounding the use of hexavalent vaccines are also reviewed.Expert Review of Vaccines 07/2009; 8(6):663-78. DOI:10.1586/erv.09.32 · 4.22 Impact Factor