Toll-like receptor 9 affects severity of IgA nephropathy.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 9.47). 10/2008; 19(12):2384-95. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2007121311
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Environmental pathogens are suspected to aggravate renal injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), but neither underlying mechanisms nor specific exogenous antigens have been identified. In this study, a genome-wide scan of ddY mice, which spontaneously develop IgAN, was performed, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was identified as a candidate gene for progression of renal injury (chi(2) = 21.103, P = 0.00017). For evaluation of the potential influence of environmental pathogens on progression of renal injury, ddY mice were housed in either conventional or specific pathogen-free conditions. Expression of genes encoding toll-like receptors (TLR) and the signaling molecule MyD88 were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in splenocytes. Although the housing conditions did not affect the prevalence of IgAN, the severity of renal injuries was higher in the conventionally housed group. Mice that had IgAN and were housed in conventional conditions had higher levels of TLR9 and MyD88 transcripts than mice that had IgAN and were housed in specific pathogen-free conditions. Furthermore, nasal challenge with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides, which are ligands for TLR9, aggravated renal injury, led to strong Th1 polarization, and increased serum and mesangial IgA. For investigation of whether these results may be generalizable to humans, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TLR9 and MyD88 genes were analyzed in two cohorts of patients with IgAN; an association was observed between TLR9 polymorphisms and disease progression. In summary, these findings suggest that activation of the TLR9/MyD88 pathway by common antigens may affect the severity of IgAN.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people from all racial and ethnic groups. At end of 2013, over 300,000 Japanese patients had maintenance dialysis therapy (JSDT). In Japan, the major causes of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) are chronic glomerulonephritis (particularly IgA nephropathy), type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Hypertension is a major factor driving the progression of CKD to ESKD. Since many features of the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy are still obscure, specific treatment is not yet available. However, efforts by investigators around the world have gradually clarified different aspects of the pathogenesis and treatment of IgA nephropathy. Today, around half of all diabetic patients in Japan receive medical treatment. Type 2 diabetic nephropathy is one of the major long-term microvascular complications occurring in nearly 40% of Japanese diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy involves both genetic and environmental factors. However, the candidate genes related to the initiation and progression of the disorder are still obscure in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Regarding environmental factors, the toxicity of persistent hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species, systemic and/or glomerular hypertension, dyslipidemia and complement are considered to play an important role. The first part of this review covers the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy and type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and combines the clinicopathological findings in patients with our research on the ddY and KKA-y mouse models (spontaneous animal models for IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy, respectively). In Japan, the major renal replacement therapies (RRT) are peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). The second part of this review focuses on PD and HD. Based on our research findings from patients and as well as from animal models, we discuss strategies for the management of patients on PD and HD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 11/2014; 39(5):450-489. DOI:10.1159/000368458 · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether IgA nephropathy is attributable to mesangial IgA is unclear as there is no correlation between intensity of deposits and extent of glomerular injury and no clear mechanism explaining how these mesangial deposits induce hematuria and subsequent proteinuria. This hinders the development of a specific therapy. Thus, precise events during deposition still remain clinical challenge to clarify. Since no study assessed induction of IgA nephropathy by nephritogenic IgA, we analyzed sequential events involving nephritogenic IgA from IgA nephropathy-prone mice by real-time imaging systems. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that serum IgA from susceptible mice had strong affinity to mesangial, subepithelial, and subendothelial lesions, with effacement/actin aggregation in podocytes and arcade formation in endothelial cells. The deposits disappeared 24-h after single IgA injection. The data were supported by a fluorescence molecular tomography system and real-time and 3D in vivo imaging. In vivo imaging showed that IgA from the susceptible mice began depositing along the glomerular capillary from 1 min and accumulated until 2-h on the first stick in a focal and segmental manner. The findings indicate that glomerular IgA depositions in IgAN may be expressed under the balance between deposition and clearance. Since nephritogenic IgA showed mesangial as well as focal and segmental deposition along the capillary with acute cellular activation, all glomerular cellular elements are a plausible target for injury such as hematuria.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113005. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113005 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (also called Berger’s disease) is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis worldwide, and was first described by J. Berger et al in 1968. Histopathologically, IgA nephropathy is characterized by expansion of glomerular mesangial matrix with mesangial cell proliferation and/or mononuclear cell infiltration. Glomeruli typically contain generalized-diffuse granular mesangial deposits of IgA (mainly IgA1), IgG and C3. Electron-dense deposits are observed in the glomerular mesangial areas and partially in the glomerular basement membrane. Thus, this disease is considered to be an immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Clinically, patients with IgA nephropathy show microscopic and macroscopic hematuria and/or proteinuria. Advanced patients (almost 40% of patients) progress to end-stage kidney disease during 20 years of observation. However, the pathogenesis and radical treatment of IgA nephropathy have still not been established.
    Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 02/2012; 4(1):14-19. DOI:10.1016/j.jecm.2011.11.003