Article

Phase III multicenter trial comparing the efficacy of 2% dodecafluoropentane emulsion (EchoGen) and sonicated 5% human albumin (Albunex) as ultrasound contrast agents in patients with suboptimal echocardiograms

Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75216-9047, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 07/1998; 32(1):230-236. DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00219-8

ABSTRACT Objectives. This study was performed to compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous 2% dodecafluoropentane (DDFP) emulsion (EchoGen) with that of active control (sonicated human albumin [Albunex]) for left ventricular (LV) cavity opacification in adult patients with a suboptimal echocardiogram.Background. The development of new fluorocarbon-based echocardiographic contrast agents such as DDFP has allowed opacification of the left ventricle after peripheral venous injection. We hypothesized that DDFP was clinically superior to the Food and Drug Administration–approved active control.Methods. This was a Phase III, multicenter, single-blind, active controlled trial. Sequential intravenous injections of active control and DDFP were given 30 min apart to 254 patients with a suboptimal echocardiogram, defined as one in which the endocardial borders were not visible in at least two segments in either the apical two- or four-chamber views. Studies were interpreted in blinded manner by two readers and the investigators.Results. Full or intermediate LV cavity opacification was more frequently observed after DDFP than after active control (78% vs. 31% for reader A; 69% vs. 34% for reader B; 83% vs. 55% for the investigators, p < 0.0001). LV cavity opacification scores were higher with DDFP (2.0 to 2.5 vs. 1.1 to 1.5, p < 0.0001). Endocardial border delineation was improved by DDFP in 88% of patients versus 45% with active control (p < 0.001). Similar improvement was seen for duration of contrast effect, salvage of suboptimal echocardiograms, diagnostic confidence and potential to affect patient management. There was no difference between agents in the number of patients with adverse events attributed to the test agent (9% for DDFP vs. 6% for active control, p = 0.92).Conclusions. This Phase III multicenter trial demonstrates that DDFP is superior to sonicated human albumin for LV cavity opacification, endocardial border definition, duration of effect, salvage of suboptimal echocardiograms, diagnostic confidence and potential to influence patient management. The two agents had similar safety profiles.

0 Followers
 · 
40 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Ultrasound enhancement of thrombolysis (sonothrombolysis) is further potentiated by administration of acoustically active microbubbles, which may be developed into powerful adjuvant therapies for thrombolytic treatment of occlusive conditions such as ischaemic stroke. Areas covered: The role of microbubbles in sonothrombolysis is evaluated based on published in vitro and in vivo evidence and a critical review of clinical trials to date. Microbubble, ultrasound and drug parameters compiled from a broad search of the existing literature are tabulated. Mechanisms of microbubble-enhanced sonothrombolysis are discussed, with particular focus on acoustic cavitation and thermal effects. A number of challenges to widespread clinical adoption are identified. Key factors for future optimisation of treatment and microbubble design are proposed. Expert opinion: Microbubble enhancement of thrombolysis is supported by a broad range of in vitro and in vivo evidence that demonstrates improved lysis compared to conventional drug treatment or ultrasound without microbubbles. Clinically, this is shown by accelerated recanalisation of occluded arteries; however, further research is needed to ensure patient safety. Before such techniques can enter widespread clinical practice, an improved understanding of the role of microbubbles in sonothrombolysis is required, in addition to demonstration of significant improvement over existing treatments and the development of reliable real-time monitoring protocols.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 01/2014; DOI:10.1517/17425247.2014.868434 · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microbubbles lower the thresh-hold for cavitation of ultrasound and have multiple potential therapeutic applications in the cardiovascular system. One of the first therapeutic applications to enter into clinical trials has been microbubble-enhanced sonothrombolysis. Trials were conducted in acute ischemic stroke and clinical trials are currently underway for sonothrombolysis in treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Microbubbles can be targeted to epitopes expressed on endothelial cells and thrombi by incorporating targeting ligands onto the surface of the microbubbles. Targeted microbubbles have applications as molecular imaging contrast agents and also for drug and gene delivery. A number of groups have shown that ultrasound with microbubbles can be used for gene delivery yielding robust gene expression in the target tissue. Work has progressed to primate studies showing delivery of therapeutic genes to generate islet cells in the pancreas to potentially cure diabetes. Microbubbles also hold potential as oxygen therapeutics and have shown promising results as a neuroprotectant in an ischemic stroke model. Regulatory considerations impact the successful clinical development of therapeutic applications of microbubbles with ultrasound. This paper briefly reviews the field and suggests avenues for further development.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2014.01.012 · 12.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature regarding the use of acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) in clinical applications of imaging, embolic therapy, and therapeutic delivery. ADV is a physical process in which the pressure waves of ultrasound induce a phase transition that causes superheated liquid nanodroplets to form gas bubbles. The bubbles provide ultrasonic imaging contrast and other functions. ADV of perfluoropentane was used extensively in imaging for preclinical trials in the 1990s, but its use declined rapidly with the advent of other imaging agents. In the last decade, ADV was proposed and explored for embolic occlusion therapy, drug delivery, aberration correction, and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) sensitization. Vessel occlusion via ADV has been explored in rodents and dogs and may be approaching clinical use. ADV for drug delivery is still in preclinical stages with initial applications to treat tumors in mice. Other techniques are still in preclinical studies but have potential for clinical use in specialty applications. Overall, ADV has a bright future in clinical application because the small size of nanodroplets greatly reduces the rate of clearance compared to larger contrast agent bubbles and yet provides the advantages of ultrasonographic contrast, acoustic cavitation, and nontoxicity of conventional perfluorocarbon contrast agent bubbles.
    11/2013; 2013(404361):1-13. DOI:10.1155/2013/404361

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
24 Downloads
Available from
May 15, 2014