Oxidation of cofilin mediates T cell hyporesponsiveness under oxidative stress conditions.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress leads to impaired T cell activation. A central integrator of T cell activation is the actin-remodelling protein cofilin. Cofilin is activated through dephosphorylation at Ser3. Activated cofilin enables actin dynamics through severing and depolymerization of F-actin. Binding of cofilin to actin is required for formation of the immune synapse and T cell activation. Here, we showed that oxidatively stressed human T cells were impaired in chemotaxis- and costimulation-induced F-actin modulation. Although cofilin was dephosphorylated, steady-state F-actin levels increased under oxidative stress conditions. Mass spectrometry revealed that cofilin itself was a target for oxidation. Cofilin oxidation induced formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge and loss of its Ser3 phosphorylation. Importantly, dephosphorylated oxidized cofilin, although still able to bind to F-actin, did not mediate F-actin depolymerization. Impairing actin dynamics through oxidation of cofilin provides a molecular explanation for the T cell hyporesponsiveness caused by oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: Rapid nitric oxide (NO) production via endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation represents a major signaling pathway for the cardiovascular protective effects of estrogens; however, the pathways post-NO biosynthesis that estrogens utilize to function remain largely unknown. Covalent adduction of a NO moiety (NO•) to cysteines termed S-nitrosylation (SNO) has been emerged as a key route for NO to directly regulate protein function. Cofilin-1 (CFL1) is a small actin-binding protein essential for actin dynamics and cytoskeleton remodeling. Despite being identified as a major SNO-protein in endothelial cells, whether SNO regulates CFL-1 function is unknown. We hypothesized that estradiol-17β (E2β) stimulates SNO of CFL1 via eNOS-derived NO and that E2β-induced SNO-CFL1 mediates cytoskeleton remodeling in endothelial cells. Point mutation studies determined Cys80 as the primary SNO site in CFL1. Substitutions of Cys80 with Ala or Ser were used to prepare the SNO-mimetic/deficient (C80A/S) CFL1 mutants. Recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant CFL1 proteins were prepared; their actin severing activity was determined by real-time fluorescence imaging analysis. The activity of C80A CFL1 was enhanced to that of the constitutively active S3/A CFL1, while the other mutants had no effects. C80A/S mutations lowered Ser3 phosphorylation. Treatment with E2β increased filamentous (F)-actin and filopodium formation in endothelial cells, which were significantly reduced in cells overexpressing wt-CFL. Overexpression of C80A-, but not C80S-, CFL1 decreased basal F-actin and further suppressed E2β-induced F-actin and filopodium formation compared to wt-CFL1 overexpression. Thus, SNOCys80 of cofilin-1 via eNOS derived NO provides a novel pathway for mediating estrogen-induced endothelial cell cytoskeleton remodeling.Molecular Endocrinology 01/2015; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cofilin regulates reorganization of actin filaments (F-actin) in eukaryotes. A recent finding has demonstrated that oxidation of cofilin by taurine chloramine (TnCl), a physiological oxidant derived from neutrophils, causes cofilin to translocate to the mitochondria inducing apoptosis (Klamt F. et al. 2009). Here we investigated the effect of TnCl on biological activities of cofilin in vitro. Our data show that TnCl-induced oxidation of recombinant human cofilin-1 inhibits its F-actin binding and depolymerization activities. Native cofilin contains four free Cys and three Met residues. Incubation of oxidized cofilin with DTT does not lead to its reactivation. A double Cys to Ala mutation on the two C-terminal Cys shows similar biological activities as the wild type, but does not prevent the TnCl-induced inactivation. In contrast, incubation of oxidized cofilin with methionine sulfoxide reductases results in its reactivation. Phosphorylation is known to inhibit cofilin activities. We found that Met oxidation also prevented phosphorylation of cofilin, which was reversed by incubating oxidized cofilin with methionine sulfoxide reductases. Interestingly, intact protein mass spectrometry of the oxidized mutant indicated one major oxidation product with an additional mass of 16-Da, consistent with oxidation of one specific Met residue. This residue was identified as Met-115 by peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry. It is adjacent to Lys-114, a known residue on globular-actin binding site, implying that oxidation of Met-115 disrupts the globular-actin binding site of cofilin, which causes TnCl-induced inactivation. The findings identify Met-115as a redox switch on cofilin that regulates its biological activity.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2014; · 5.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differentiation of erythroblasts to mature red blood cells involves dynamic changes of the membrane and cytoskeleton networks that are not fully characterized. Using a mouse fetal liver erythroblast culture system and a targeted shRNA functional screening strategy, we identified a critical role of pleckstrin-2 in actin dynamics and protection of early stage terminal erythroblasts from oxidative damage. Knockdown of pleckstrin-2 in the early stage of terminal erythropoiesis disrupted the actin cytoskeleton and led to differentiation inhibition and apoptosis. This pro-survival and differentiation function of pleckstrin-2 was mediated through its interaction with cofilin, by preventing cofilin mitochondrial entry when the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the early stage of terminal erythropoiesis. Treatment of the cells with a scavenger of reactive oxygen species rescued cofilin mitochondrial entry and differentiation inhibition induced by pleckstrin-2 knockdown. In contrast, pleckstrin-2 knockdown in late stage terminal erythroblasts had no effect on survival or differentiation but blocked enucleation due to disorganized actin cytoskeleton. Thus, our study identified a dual function of pleckstrin-2 in the early and late stages of terminal erythropoiesis through its regulations of actin dynamics and cofilin's mitochondrial localization, which reflects intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in different developmental stages.Haematologica 04/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor