Oxidation of Cofilin Mediates T Cell Hyporesponsiveness under Oxidative Stress Conditions
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress leads to impaired T cell activation. A central integrator of T cell activation is the actin-remodelling protein cofilin. Cofilin is activated through dephosphorylation at Ser3. Activated cofilin enables actin dynamics through severing and depolymerization of F-actin. Binding of cofilin to actin is required for formation of the immune synapse and T cell activation. Here, we showed that oxidatively stressed human T cells were impaired in chemotaxis- and costimulation-induced F-actin modulation. Although cofilin was dephosphorylated, steady-state F-actin levels increased under oxidative stress conditions. Mass spectrometry revealed that cofilin itself was a target for oxidation. Cofilin oxidation induced formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge and loss of its Ser3 phosphorylation. Importantly, dephosphorylated oxidized cofilin, although still able to bind to F-actin, did not mediate F-actin depolymerization. Impairing actin dynamics through oxidation of cofilin provides a molecular explanation for the T cell hyporesponsiveness caused by oxidative stress.
SourceAvailable from: Darawan Rinchai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are terminally differentiated cells that are involved in innate immune responses and form an early line of defense against pathogens. More recently, it has been shown that PMNs have immunosuppressive abilities on other immune cells. However, the effect of PMNs on T cell responses during bacterial infection remains to be determined. In this report, we examined the interaction of PMNs and T cells in response to infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of human melioidosis. We observed that CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in response to polyclonal activators is significantly inhibited by uninfected PMNs, and to a greater extent B. pseudomallei-infected PMNs. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a known regulator of T cell activation, is increased in mRNA expression in the blood of patients and upon infection of PMNs in vitro. The increased expression of PD-L1 was correlated with the degree of T cell inhibition in individuals with type 2 diabetes, a major risk factor of melioidosis. In vitro, addition of anti-PD-L1 Abs blocked this inhibitory activity and restored proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and IFN-γ production, suggesting that PD-L1 on B. pseudomallei-infected PMNs is a regulatory molecule for the functions of T cells and may be involved in pathogenesis versus control of melioidosis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.The Journal of Immunology 03/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402417 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The actin cytoskeleton is a main component to preserve the cell shape. It represents a cellular machinery that enables morphological changes and orchestrates important dynamic cellular functions. Thereby, it supports T-cell migration, immune synapse formation, activation and execution of effector functions. The analysis of actin rearrangements in T-cells is therefore an important field of basic and clinical research. Actin reorganization is traditionally performed using flow cytometry or confocal microscopy. However, while flow cytometry lacks spatial and structural information, confocal microscopy is time consuming and not feasible for the characterization of rare events or of un-purified primary cell populations. Here we describe a methodology to analyse actin rearrangements using InFlow microscopy, which is a hybrid technique consisting of flow cytometric and microscopic features. We show that InFlow microscopy is a valuable tool for quantification of the amount and distribution of F-actin in human T-cells after stimulation with chemokines or antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of immunological methods 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2015.03.003 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacteria colonize cystic fibrosis (CF) airways, and although T cells with appropriate Ag specificity are present in draining lymph nodes, they are conspicuously absent from the lumen. To account for this absence, we hypothesized that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), recruited massively into the CF airway lumen and actively exocytosing primary granules, also suppress T cell function therein. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which exerts T cell suppression at a late step, was expressed bimodally on CF airway PMNs, delineating PD-L1(hi) and PD-L1(lo) subsets, whereas healthy control (HC) airway PMNs were uniformly PD-L1(hi). Blood PMNs incubated in CF airway fluid lost PD-L1 over time; in coculture, Ab blockade of PD-L1 failed to inhibit the suppression of T cell proliferation by CF airway PMNs. In contrast with PD-L1, arginase 1 (Arg1), which exerts T cell suppression at an early step, was uniformly high on CF and HC airway PMNs. However, arginase activity was high in CF airway fluid and minimal in HC airway fluid, consistent with the fact that Arg1 activation requires primary granule exocytosis, which occurs in CF, but not HC, airway PMNs. In addition, Arg1 expression on CF airway PMNs correlated negatively with lung function and positively with arginase activity in CF airway fluid. Finally, combined treatment with arginase inhibitor and arginine rescued the suppression of T cell proliferation by CF airway fluid. Thus, Arg1 and PD-L1 are dynamically modulated upon PMN migration into human airways, and, Arg1, but not PD-L1, contributes to early PMN-driven T cell suppression in CF, likely hampering resolution of infection and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.The Journal of Immunology 04/2015; 194:0-0. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500312 · 5.36 Impact Factor