Oxidation of Cofilin Mediates T Cell Hyporesponsiveness under Oxidative Stress Conditions
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress leads to impaired T cell activation. A central integrator of T cell activation is the actin-remodelling protein cofilin. Cofilin is activated through dephosphorylation at Ser3. Activated cofilin enables actin dynamics through severing and depolymerization of F-actin. Binding of cofilin to actin is required for formation of the immune synapse and T cell activation. Here, we showed that oxidatively stressed human T cells were impaired in chemotaxis- and costimulation-induced F-actin modulation. Although cofilin was dephosphorylated, steady-state F-actin levels increased under oxidative stress conditions. Mass spectrometry revealed that cofilin itself was a target for oxidation. Cofilin oxidation induced formation of an intramolecular disulfide bridge and loss of its Ser3 phosphorylation. Importantly, dephosphorylated oxidized cofilin, although still able to bind to F-actin, did not mediate F-actin depolymerization. Impairing actin dynamics through oxidation of cofilin provides a molecular explanation for the T cell hyporesponsiveness caused by oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: T cells infiltrate peripheral tissues to execute immunosurveillance and effector functions. For this purpose, T cells first migrate on the two-dimensional (2D) surface of endothelial cells to undergo transendothelial migration. Then they change their mode of movement to undergo migration within the three-dimensional (3D)-extracellular matrix of the infiltrated tissue. As yet, no molecular mechanisms are known, which control migration exclusively in either 2D or 3D environments. Here, we describe a signalling module that controls T-cell chemotaxis specifically in 3D environments. In chemotaxing T cells, Ras activity is spatially restricted to the lamellipodium. There, Ras initiates activation of MEK, which in turn inhibits LIM-kinase 1 activity, thereby allowing dephosphorylation of the F-actin-remodelling protein cofilin. Interference with this MEK-cofilin module by either inhibition of MEK or by knockdown of cofilin reduces speed and directionality of chemotactic migration in 3D-extracellular matrices, but not on 2D substrates. This MEK-cofilin module may have an important function in the tissue positioning of T cells during an immune response.The EMBO Journal 09/2010; 29(17):2915-29. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2010.153 · 10.75 Impact Factor
- Advances in enzyme regulation 01/2009; 49(1):107-12. DOI:10.1016/j.advenzreg.2008.12.006
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ABSTRACT: How leukocytes are attracted to wounds is poorly understood. Recent work using zebrafish reveals a novel mechanism of early leukocyte recruitment to wounds through a concentration gradient of hydrogen peroxide.Current biology: CB 08/2009; 19(14):R553-5. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2009.06.025 · 9.92 Impact Factor