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Cancer Cell International
S100A4 overexpression proves to be independent marker for
breast cancer progression
Nawfal I Ismail, Gurjeet Kaur, Hasnah Hashim and Mohammed S Hassan*
Address: Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia
Email: Nawfal I Ismail - email@example.com; Gurjeet Kaur - firstname.lastname@example.org; Hasnah Hashim - email@example.com;
Mohammed S Hassan* - firstname.lastname@example.org
* Corresponding author
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and cause of deaths in women around
the world. Oncogene amplification usually occurs late in tumor progression and correlates well
with aggressiveness of tumor. In fact the function of the S100A4 protein and its role in metastasis
is unclear at present. The purpose of the study was to determine the expression of S100A4 protein
in the invasion status and metastatic potential of breast cancer by using tissue microarray and to
determine its role in breast cancer based on the expression of S100A4 gene product.
Methods: S100A4 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using
commercially available tissue microarray containing malignant and normal breast tissue cores from
Results: S100A4 was absent in normal breast tissues while positive in 45.1% of infiltrating ductal
carcinoma (IDC) node negative and 48.8% of infiltrating lobular carcinoma node negative. In paired
samples, S100A4 protein was expressed in 13.5% of IDC node positive cases and 35.1% of matched
lymph node metastasis.
Conclusion: S100A4 protein expression appears widely expressed in early and advanced breast
cancer stages compared with normal breast. Our study suggests S100A4 may play a role in breast
cancer progression and may prove to be an independent marker of breast cancer which appears
to be down regulated in more advanced stages of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is still the most common public health prob-
lem in women worldwide . Cancer cells may invade the
surrounding by tissue remodeling and angiogenesis [2-7].
They may spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic
system to other parts of the body [2-7]. The majority of
invasive breast cancer from the epithelium of lobules and
ducts of the glands [8-21]. Metastasis is considered as the
spreading of tumor cells from the primary neoplasm to
distant sites [22,23]. In spite of significant advancement
in early diagnosis, surgical intervention as well as local
and systemic adjuvant therapies, the majority of cancer
deaths are attributable to metastasis that are resistant to
available therapies .
The metastasis process is not a random process but consist
of a complex series of linked and interrelated steps involv-
ing multiple host-tumor interaction . Many proteins
Published: 5 September 2008
Cancer Cell International 2008, 8:12doi:10.1186/1475-2867-8-12
Received: 30 May 2008
Accepted: 5 September 2008
This article is available from: http://www.cancerci.com/content/8/1/12
© 2008 Ismail et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Cancer Cell International 2008, 8:12http://www.cancerci.com/content/8/1/12
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