Antiviral activity of single-dose PRO 140, a CCR5 monoclonal antibody, in HIV-infected adults.
ABSTRACT The current goal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy is to maximally suppress viral replication. Securing this goal requires new drugs and treatment classes. The chemokine receptor CCR5 provides an entry portal for HIV-1, and PRO 140 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to CCR5 and potently inhibits CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in vitro.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study was conducted in 39 individuals with HIV-1 RNA levels or =5000 copies/mL, CD4(+) cell counts > or =250 cells/microL, no antiretroviral therapy for 3 months, and only R5 HIV-1 detectable. Cohorts were randomized 3:10 to receive placebo or doses of PRO 140 of 0.5, 2, or 5 mg/kg. Subjects were monitored for 58 days for safety, antiviral effects, and serum concentrations of PRO 140.
PRO 140 was generally well tolerated and demonstrated potent, rapid, prolonged, and dose-dependent antiviral activity. Mean reductions in HIV-1 RNA level of 0.58 log(10), 1.20 log(10) (P= .0002) and 1.83 log(10) (P= .0001) were observed for the 0.5-, 2-, and 5-mg/kg dose groups, respectively. Reductions in mean viral load of > or =10-fold were observed within 4 days and persisted for 2-3 weeks after treatment.
This trial established clear proof of concept for PRO 140 as a potent antiretroviral agent with extended activity after a single dose.
ISRCTN Register: ISRCTN45537485 .
Article: Orthobunyavirus entry into neurons and other mammalian cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires trafficking into early endosomes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: La Crosse virus (LACV) is a leading cause of pediatric encephalitis and aseptic meningitis in the midwestern and southern United States, where it is considered an emerging human pathogen. No specific therapies or vaccines are available for LACV or any other orthobunyaviruses. Inhibition of LACV entry into cells is a potential target for therapeutic intervention, but this approach is limited by our current knowledge of the entry process. Here, we determined that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the primary mechanism of orthobunyavirus entry and identified key cellular factors in this process. First, we demonstrated that LACV colocalized with clathrin shortly after infection in HeLa cells; we then confirmed the functional requirement of dynamin- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis for orthobunyavirus entry using several independent assays and, importantly, extended these findings to primary neuronal cultures. We also determined that macropinocytosis and caveolar endocytosis, both established routes of virus entry, are not critical for cellular entry of LACV. Moreover, we demonstrated that LACV infection is dependent on Rab5, which plays an important regulatory role in early endosomes, but not on Rab7, which is associated with late endosomes. These findings provide the first description of bunyavirus entry into cells of the central nervous system, where infection can cause severe neurological disease, and will aid in the design and development of antivirals and therapeutics that may be useful in the treatment of LACV and, more broadly, arboviral infections of the central nervous system.Journal of Virology 05/2012; 86(15):7988-8001. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: CCR5 blockade is well tolerated and induces changes in the tissue distribution of CCR5+ and CD25+ T cells in healthy, SIV-uninfected rhesus macaques.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CCR5 is a main co-receptor for HIV, but also homes lymphocytes to sites of inflammation. We hypothesized that inhibition of CCR5 signaling would reduce HIV-associated chronic immune activation. To test this hypothesis, we administered an antagonistic anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody (HGS101) to five uninfected rhesus macaques (RMs) and monitored lymphocyte dynamics in blood and tissue. CCR5 blockade resulted in decreased levels of CCR5+ T cells in blood and, at later timepoints, in lymph nodes. Additionally, the levels of CD25+ T cells increased in lymph nodes, but decreased in blood, bone marrow, and rectal mucosa. Finally, a profile of gene expression from HGS101-treated RMs revealed a subtle, but consistent, in vivo signature of CCR5 blockade that suggests a mild immune-modulatory effect. Treatment with anti-CCR5 antibody induces changes in the tissue distribution of CCR5+ and CD25+ T cells that may impact on the overall levels of immune activation during HIV and SIV infection.Journal of Medical Primatology 11/2011; 41(1):24-42. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now recognized as a chronic illness. Although the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy is beyond question, several issues still persist. Since the drugs cannot eradicate the virus, cure is not yet possible, and patients have to maintain a lifelong adherence with the risk of toxic effects, drug-drug interactions and drug resistance. A clear understanding of the viral replication and its interaction with host cell factors has led to the development of a large number of effective antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). New drugs in the existing class such as apricitabine, elvucitabine and etravirine have shown promising results against HIV isolates resistant to first line drugs. These drugs have offered a new choice for patients with drug resistant disease. However, the impact of their long term use on safety is yet to be assessed. Novel drugs with unique mechanism of action such as CD4 receptor attachment inhibitors, maturation inhibitors, pharmacokinetic enhancers, capsid assembly inhibitors and lens epithelium derived growth factor inhibitors are still under development. Currently, ARVs, especially tenofovir and emtricitabine, are also being evaluated for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV-1. The initial results of an HIV prevention trial network are encouraging and have recommended the use of ARVs for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Thus, ARVs form the key component of HIV prevention and treatment strategy. This article discusses the challenges associated with HIV-1 treatment and updates several major advances in the development of ARVs.Indian Journal of Pharmacology 05/2012; 44(3):288-98. · 0.27 Impact Factor