Article

The GPI-anchored superoxide dismutase SodC is essential for regulating basal Ras activity and for chemotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.
Journal of Cell Science (Impact Factor: 5.88). 10/2008; 121(Pt 18):3099-108. DOI: 10.1242/jcs.030056
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A genetic screen for Dictyostelium mutant displaying high level of constitutive phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate led to the finding that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored superoxide dismutase SodC regulates small GTPase Ras. Cells that lack SodC exhibited constitutively high levels of active Ras, more membrane localization of GFP-PHcrac, and defects in chemoattractant sensing, cell polarization and motility. These defects of SodC-lacking cells were partially restored by expression of wild-type SodC but not by the catalytically inactive mutant SodC (H245R, H247Q). Furthermore, an inhibition of PI3K activity in SodC-deficient cells by LY294002 only partially restored chemoattractant sensing and cell polarization, consistent with the fact that SodC-deficient cells have aberrantly high level of active Ras, which functions upstream of PI3K. A higher level of active GFP-RasG was observed in SodC-deficient cells, which significantly decreased upon incubation of SodC-deficient cells with the superoxide scavenger XTT. Having constitutively high levels of active Ras proteins and more membrane localization of GFP-PHcrac, SodC-deficient cells exhibited severe defects in chemoattractant sensing, cell polarization and motility.

1 Bookmark
 · 
62 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is a multifunctional kinase involved in diverse cellular activities such as metabolism, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Recent studies showed that GSK3 in Dictyostelium affects chemotaxis via TorC2 pathway and Daydreamer. Now we report that GSK3 affects PI3K membrane localization, of which the mechanism has remained to be fully understood in Dictyostelium. The membrane localization domain (LD) of Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase 1 (PI3K1) is phosphorylated on serine residues in a GSK3 dependent mechanism and PI3K1-LD exhibited biased membrane localization in gsk3(-) cells compared to the wild type cells. Furthermore, multiple GSK3-phosphorylation consensus sites exist in PI3K1-LD, of which phosphomimetic substitutions restored cAMP induced transient membrane localization of PI3K1-LD in gsk3(-) cells. Serine to alanine substitution mutants of PI3K1-LD, in contrast, displayed constitutive membrane localization in wild type cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that GSK3 dependent serine phosphorylation of PI3K1-LD is constitutive during the course of cAMP stimulation. Together, these data suggest that GSK3 dependent serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for chemoattractant cAMP induced PI3K membrane localization.
    Embryologia 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemotaxis, the directed migration of cells in chemical gradients, is a vital process in normal physiology and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Chemotactic cells display motility, directional sensing, and polarity. Motility refers to the random extension of pseudopodia, which may be driven by spontaneous actin waves that propagate through the cytoskeleton. Directional sensing is mediated by a system that detects temporal and spatial stimuli and biases motility toward the gradient. Polarity gives cells morphologically and functionally distinct leading and lagging edges by relocating proteins or their activities selectively to the poles. By exploiting the genetic advantages of Dictyostelium, investigators are working out the complex network of interactions between the proteins that have been implicated in the chemotactic processes of motility, directional sensing, and polarity.
    Annual Review of Biophysics 02/2010; 39:265-89. · 12.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a highly conserved protein kinase that is involved in several important cell signaling pathways and is associated with a range of medical conditions. Previous studies indicated a major role of the Dictyostelium homologue of GSK3 (gskA) in cell fate determination during morphogenesis of the fruiting body; however, transcriptomic and proteomic studies have suggested that GSK3 regulates gene expression much earlier during Dictyostelium development. To investigate a potential earlier role of GskA, we examined the effects of loss of gskA on cell aggregation. We find that cells lacking gskA exhibit poor chemotaxis toward cAMP and folate. Mutants fail to activate two important regulatory signaling pathways, mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) and target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2), which in combination are required for chemotaxis and cAMP signaling. These results indicate that GskA is required during early stages of Dictyostelium development, in which it is necessary for both chemotaxis and cell signaling.
    Molecular biology of the cell 08/2010; 21(15):2788-96. · 5.98 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from